Tuberculosis: symptoms and early signs in the early stages
In most cases, it affects the lung tissue, but infection of other organs also occurs. Tuberculosis bacilli are extremely resistant to negative environmental influences.
They are able to stay in soil, snow and water for a long time, which explains the prevalence of the disease among people. In addition, tuberculosis is poorly treated, so mortality from it until the XX century was extremely high.
To date, the situation has changed for the better, but nevertheless some of the patients die from complications. That is why it is important to know the first symptoms of tuberculosis, so as not to miss the initial stage of the disease, in which the prognosis of treatment is favorable in most cases.
Pathways of infection with tuberculosis
The development of pulmonary tuberculosis is provoked by such mycobacteria as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex( Koch's stick) and Mycobacterium avium complex. Most often, infection occurs by airborne droplets, when a person inhales the mycobacteria during a conversation with an infected person. In addition, it's enough just to be near the infected person to breathe pathogenic bacteria, as they are actively allocated during sneezing and coughing.
Much less often occurs infection through the digestive tract, when a person consumes contaminated food or water. But for infection by this method, a large number of pathogenic bacteria is needed, which explains the rarity of this route of transmission of tuberculosis.
There is also a contact mode of transmission of infection. It is realized by infection of the mucosa, most often through a conjunctiva, but this method of transmitting mycobacteria is rare. In addition, there may be an innate development of tuberculosis, when the fetus becomes infected through the placenta or from the mother during childbirth.
Given that the transmission of mycobacteria by an alimentary, contact and intrauterine method is rare, in most cases the pulmonary form of tuberculosis develops. If the infection did not occur by airborne droplets, then extrapulmonary tuberculosis may develop, such as:
- of bones and joints;
- of the gastrointestinal tract;
- central nervous system and meninges;
- of the genitourinary system.
Early signs and symptoms of tuberculosis
The first signs of tuberculosis in adults and children manifest themselves individually.
Symptoms of tuberculosis are strongly influenced by factors such as the time of infection, the level of human defenses, the presence of co-morbid conditions, environmental factors, working conditions, etc.
In some tuberculosis patients, symptoms may not appear until the disease develops,when complications can already put a person's life in jeopardy. In other people, tuberculosis will begin to manifest itself from the first days of infection, while in others, the disease will develop gradually.
Possible sleep disturbance, as well as the appearance of lethargy, apathy and irritability due to poor health. The above symptoms appear due to intoxication of the body due to an active increase in pathogenic bacteria. With further intoxication, a person may experience a subfebrile temperature, which is often accompanied by sweating.
In addition, outwardly a person is distinguished by pallor, unhealthy blush due to fever, and also a sharp inexplicable weight loss. The appearance of such symptoms should alert any person and encourage them to see a specialist.
Further development of the disease is accompanied by a decrease in blood levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, as well as hemoglobin content, which is typical for severe anemia and leukopenia. As a consequence, new symptoms associated with anemia and leukopenia are added, and the human condition worsens even more.
Further, the first specific symptoms of tuberculosis may appear:
Against the background of a persistent cough with sputum discharge, hemoptysis occurs when a small amount of blood is excreted along with phlegm. In addition, a person can suffer widespread pain in the chest, shortness of breath and shortness of breath.
Symptoms of other forms of tuberculosis
In addition to pulmonary tuberculosis, there are other varieties of this disease, the symptoms of which you will learn below:
- 1) Manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis depend on the localization of the infection. So, with tuberculosis of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea develops, body temperature increases, nausea, vomiting. There are pains in the abdomen and often blood in the stool.
- 2) When a tuberculosis of the central nervous system of a person is suffering headache, which is accompanied by irritability and vomiting. There is also muscle tension, which gives pain when a person tries to stretch his legs or tilt his head.
- 3) Tuberculosis of bones and joints is characterized primarily by pain in the bones, joints, back, and also by limitation of mobility. With tuberculosis of the organs of the genitourinary system, the kidneys are most often affected, which is manifested in disturbances in the process of urination. Pain and rubbing with urination, a feeling of an unblooded bladder, blood in the urine is only a small part of the symptoms of this type of tuberculosis.
- 4) In addition to all of the above, distinguish between skin tuberculosis, which is characterized by the appearance of nodules on the skin. Nodules eventually mature, protrude on the surface and break through purulent contents.
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