The first year of a child's life
Jun 24, 2018
The best food for an infant is mother's milk. It surprisingly adapted to meet all the needs of the child in nutritional substances, contains the optimal amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins for the baby in the first months of his life. In addition, it contains special protective and antimicrobial substances that protect the child from diseases. It is perfectly adapted to the peculiarities of the digestion of a newborn child, it is easily digested and absorbed by its body.
However, all this is true only if the mother is healthy and receives adequate nutrition. Otherwise, the composition of breast milk varies. There are facts when the amount of protein, vitamins, some minerals sharply decreases in the feeding of a lactating mother in her milk, the content of carbohydrates increases, and various harmful impurities appear that have an adverse effect on the child's body( for example, when a mother is breastfeeding, the nervous system sufferschild).
According to the recommendations of the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Russian Federation, a nursing woman should receive a slightly higher caloric intake( 700-1000 calories per day).Caloric content( energy value) of the diet should be approximately 3200-3500 kcal. At the same time, about 120 g of proteins( 60-70% of animal origin), 100-120 g of fats( 20% of plant fats) and 450-500 g of carbohydrates should be included in the daily ration. The daily set of products for a nursing mother can be as follows: milk - 1000 ml;cottage cheese - 100-150 g;cheese - 20-30 g;sour cream - 20 g;meat - 150 g;fish - 50 g;egg - 1 piece;butter - 30 g;vegetable oil - 30 g;cereals - 60 g;potatoes - 200 g;fruit, berries - 200-300 g;vegetables are different - 300-400.
If there is not enough fresh fruit and vegetables, especially in the winter-spring period, you can use vegetable and fruit preserves, frozen fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and take vitamin preparations.
A lactating woman should avoid consuming excess spices, onions, garlic, as they may impart an unpleasant aftertaste to milk. Also, excessive consumption of sweets, especially chocolate, cocoa, as well as citrus, nuts, mushrooms( they can cause the child manifestations of exudative diathesis) is not recommended. Nursing mothers categorically forbidden the use of alcoholic beverages, including beer. The prevailing opinion among the population that beer increases the amount of breast milk is absolutely wrong. Moreover, beer contains up to 3-6% of alcohol, which very easily passes into breast milk and has its destructive effect.
For a good lactation of a nursing mother, in addition to proper nutrition, a full rest, sleep not less than 8 hours a day, stay in the fresh air, calm situation in the family. With a lack of breast milk, which can sometimes be observed, despite the correct mode and nutrition, the doctor prescribes a special treatment( vitamins, physiotherapy, more frequent application of the baby to the breast, etc.).It is very important that the mother does not show nervousness in these cases, and does not hurry to supplement the child with the mixtures. Often with appropriate treatment, lactation is established.
Feeding a newborn baby requires special attention. At present, maternity hospitals try to apply newborn babies to the mother's breast at the earliest possible date. This contributes to the production of milk from the mother, and the body receives the necessary nutrients and protective factors.
It is very important to observe the proper mode of feeding: 6 times a day, as is customary in maternity hospitals, or if the child sucks sleepily and does not suck the amount of milk it is prescribed, 7 times a day every 3 hours, observing a nocturnal 6-hour pause. To the child developed a certain rhythm of nutrition, at first it must be awakened to the next feeding, if he sleeps. The baby, who is anxious before the time of feeding, give a little water and only in the extreme case feed, trying to ensure that the deviations from the regime do not exceed 20-30 minutes.
In addition to breast milk, the newborn is given 1-2 tablespoons of water between feedings, up to 50-100 ml per day, in hot weather - up to 150 ml. By the end of the first month of life, instead of water, a child can be given fruit or vegetable decoctions, a broth of wild rose, starting with small amounts.
In the diet of children older than 1 month, fruit and berry juices are introduced as additional sources of vitamins and minerals. First, apple juice is recommended, which is best absorbed by the baby and rarely gives allergic reactions. In a week, when the baby gets used to apple juice, you can give others - cherry, blackcurrant, and then all the rest, like fruit and berry, vegetable: apricot, plum, carrot, tomato, cabbage, etc. Strawberry, strawberry, lemonand orange juice should be given, observing a certain caution, since they in some children can cause allergic reactions.
In the diet of a child at the age of 1.5 months, you should enter apple puree, starting from 1 teaspoon, to 50 g per day. After 1-2 weeks, you can give puree from any fruit, but carefully and gradually, paying attention to his reaction.
Along with natural juices and purees, children are given canned( specially prepared for baby food).Currently, the industry produces a wide range of children's canned fruits and vegetables. They are produced from high quality raw materials with the help of technology that ensures a more complete safety of food and biological value of products. Preserved juices for baby food can be given to the child at the same time and in the same quantities as those cooked at home from natural products.
From 3 months the child can get the yolk of a hard-boiled chicken egg, which contains many minerals and vitamins, as well as an easily digestible and valuable protein. Like every new type of food, it starts to be given with small portions( about 1 / 8-1 / 10 of a portion), gradually increasing its amount to 1/2 of yolk per day.
If the child is weakened, not enough to gain in body weight, he can receive additional cottage cheese as a source of high-grade protein. If there is evidence, the cottage cheese is prescribed by the doctor and in earlier periods - already in the first month of life.
To determine the amount of milk that a child receives per one feeding, it is weighed before and after applying to the breast, and then by the difference in body weight calculate this figure. In some children's polyclinics, mothers are given a baby scales at home to systematically monitor the amount of food they receive. Baby scales can be taken at the rental points.
The amount of food the child needs to be determined is based on his age and body weight. The daily amount of milk for a child between the ages of 8-10 days and 2 months should roughly be 1/5 of his body weight. For example, if the body weight of a child at the age of 1 month is 4000 g, then it should receive 800 ml of milk per day( 4000: 5 = 800).Then this amount decreases relatively and amounts to: for a child from 2 to 4 months 1/6 of the body weight, from 4 to 6 months 1/7, from 6 to 9 months 1/8 and from 9 months to 1 year 1 / 8-1/ 9 body weight.
After 4 months, the baby's development goes on at a fast pace, and breast milk, although ideal food, can no longer fully satisfy the needs for food substances. At this time( 4,5 months) the first lure is assigned. However, if a child develops poorly, finds signs of rickets, anemia, lure can be given earlier - from 4 months. Also in earlier terms, lure is given to children with persistent vomiting, prematurely. On the other hand, if the child is sick, especially with digestive disorders, feverish conditions, the introduction of the first complementary meal should be delayed to 5, and sometimes to 5.5 months.
The first lure, as a rule, is given in the form of vegetable puree. It is made from potatoes, carrots, turnip, pumpkin. Puree from several types of vegetables is much more useful than from a single potato, so we should strive to use a variety of vegetables for cooking this dish. When the child gets used to these vegetables, he can give tomatoes, green peas, zucchini, etc. It is necessary to start with small amounts( 1-2 teaspoons), then gradually the volume of food increases to 130-150 g, completely replacing one breastfeeding( usuallyat 10 am or 2 pm).As a vegetable puree, you can use ready-made canned fruits and vegetables for baby food, as well as dry nutritious mixtures on a vegetable or fruit basis( Bebimix, Frutolino, etc.).
The second lure is usually given to a child at the age of 5 months, 2 weeks after the introduction of the first. As a second complement, milk porridge is given, at first 5-8%, and then more dense - 10%.With cereals that go to make porridge, the child receives a variety of minerals and vitamins, especially group B, as well as vegetable protein and fiber. For children of early age, oat and buckwheat groats are more useful than semolina or rice. It is very convenient to use special children's flour from a mixture of various cereals, which is produced by industry. For the preparation of cereals, you can use baby food mixtures "Krepysh", "Health", ready-made cereal "Malysh", "Zernyshko", "Kolobok", etc. The so-called pink porridges cooked with stewed and wiped carrots, pumpkins,apples.
Lure of porridge also begins with small amounts( 1-2 teaspoons), then within a week the amount of porridge is brought to 120-180 g, completely replacing another breastfeeding.
The third lure is appointed at the age of 7 months. Usually it is a yogurt with cottage cheese or biscuits. At this age, the child is given a meat broth, minced meat, as a rule, while feeding, when the baby receives vegetable purée. Children who are lagging behind in physical development, suffering from anemia, rickets, minced meat are recommended from 5-6 months. They can at the same time give a liver, rich in trace elements, iron salts, vitamin A. Thus, a child at the age of 7.5-8 months already receives 3 complementary foods and only 2 times a day breast milk.
The approximate daily ration of a child aged 8 months can be:
6.00 - breast milk
10.00 - milk porridge 10% of different cereals( 170 g), yolk( 0.5 pcs.), Fruit juice, berry juice( 50 ml)
14.00 - meat broth( 20 ml)
cracker( 5 g)
vegetable puree( 170 g)
minced meat( 50 g)
fruit juice( 30 ml)
18.00 - kefir, biolact, acidophilic mixture( 100 ml)
cookies( 5 g)
fruit puree( 70 g)
22.00 - breast milk
During the 9-10th month of life, the baby's diet continues to expand. Kashi can be cooked already from whole grains, rubbing them through a sieve, and later through a colander. Use barley and pearl barley. Millet for children under 1 year is not recommended, because it is too coarse and relatively poor in food substances.
With 9 months baby, except for beef, you can give rabbit, chicken, lean pork meat. From 10-11 months in his diet should be introduced fish( cod, hake, any river fish, carefully freed from bones), as well as byproducts - brains, heart, tongue( the liver is given earlier).Meat and meat products are advised to be given not only in the form of mashed potatoes, but also in the form of meatballs and steam cutlets( by the year of life).It is very convenient to use special children's meat canned food from beef, pork, chicken, offal.
In the food of children of the second half of life must necessarily include vegetable oil. It is usually added to vegetable puree. Especially useful are vegetable fats for children with exudative diathesis, as they increase the defenses of the body and improve the skin condition.
Butter is introduced into the baby's diet a little later - at the same time as the porridge. By the end of the first year of life of the child on average should receive every day 6 g of creamy and 6 g of vegetable oil.
The recommended terms for the introduction of individual products and their approximate amount for children of the first year of life who are on natural( breast-feeding) are given in subsequent articles.
Stop breastfeeding children aged 10-11 months. However, it is not possible to wean the baby from the breast during the illness and immediately after the preventive vaccination, as well as during the hot summer period. In these cases, breastfeeding should be somewhat prolonged.
The withdrawal of the baby from the breast is carried out gradually. First, one of the two remaining feedings of breast milk( usually morning) is replaced by the ingestion of kefir or milk, and if the baby wakes up late, then milk porridge. After 5-10 days, the last breastfeeding is also replaced with kefir or milk. After the cessation of feeding, milk ceases to be produced usually after 3-4 days. When engorging the mammary glands, it is recommended to bandage the breast tightly and tightly and to limit the fluid intake.
Mixed and artificial feeding, which is necessary to translate a child with a lack or lack of milk from the mother, is much more difficult than natural. The smaller the child, the worse he suffers from the deprivation of breast milk. Therefore, in the absence of breast milk the mother should try to provide the baby with donor milk at least during the first 1-1,5 months of life. It is advisable to use donor milk in its raw form, since during its pasteurization many vitamins, enzymes, protective factors are destroyed and partial decomposition of the protein takes place. At the same time, the donor woman should be absolutely healthy, strictly follow the rules for expressing and storing milk( expressed breast milk can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 12 hours).
If the mother has breast milk, even in a minimal amount, she should try to breastfeed as long as possible, compensating for the lack of milk with the formula( mixed feeding).It is recommended to give supplementary feeding after each breast-feeding, determining the amount of sucked milk by weighing the baby before and after feeding. The nipple through which the mixture is given must have a small opening and be sufficiently elastic so that the toddler has to work hard to get food. Otherwise, having got used to easily get food from a bottle, he can give up breast. With a small amount of pre-bacon it is recommended to give it from a spoon.
If the breastfeeding is not possible and there is no donor milk, the child has to be transferred to the artificial feeding.
For mixed and artificial feeding, it is possible to use so-called adapted milk formulas, the composition of which is as close as possible to the composition of breast milk. It is especially important to use the adapted mixtures for artificial immersion of children in the first months of life, when the use of unadapted( simple) mixtures such as B-rice, B-kefir, Krepysh, Health can lead to the development of a number of diseases in children( hypotrophy,rickets, dyspeptic disorders).
Milk mixtures of domestic production "Detolact", "Vitalakt", "Ladushka", "Malyutka", adapted acidophilic mixtures, as well as imported mixtures of "Similak", "Linolak", "Bona "," Piltti "," Tutte-li ", etc.
When using dry adapted mixtures it is very important to properly observe the method of their preparation, strictly dose the amount of powder. For each mixture, the preparation method is indicated on the label. It can not be thought that the preparation of a more concentrated mixture will make it even more nutritious for the child. On the contrary, it can cause harm, since the baby can not cope with excessive amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. He may have regurgitation, upset of the stool, and a decrease in appetite. On the other hand, the use of a small amount of powder and the preparation of a diluted mixture leads to a systematically malnourished child, its development slows down.
If there is no special spoon in the box with a special dosage spoon, you can choose any other spoon or measure and determine how much dry mixture it contains and then dispense the mixture only with this measure.
When transferring a child to artificial feeding, especially in the first months of life, the following rules should be strictly observed:
- in the first 2-3 days, give a slightly smaller amount of food( about 2/3 of the serving portion), supplementing the missing quantity with sweet tea, rosehip broth, boiled with sweetened water;
- if the child tolerates the intended mixture well, do not delay it on a restricted diet, bring the amount of the mixture to normal within 3-5 days;
- make sure that the child receives a sufficient amount of fluid, since all existing mixtures contain more protein than women's milk, and the child needs more water to assimilate it;
- in earlier terms, transfer the child to 5-time feeding, as the mixture lasts longer in the stomach than breast milk;
- all food additives, a variety of complementary foods, give 2-4 weeks earlier than with breastfeeding( the scheme of artificial feeding is given in subsequent articles);
- every child who is on early artificial feeding should be under the systematic supervision of a pediatrician who follows the correct development of the child, the state of his health and, if necessary, makes appropriate adjustments to the baby's diet.
Pay attention to the child's appetite. Do not feed it by force, trying to give all the prescribed amount of food, but do not refuse in some additional amount of the mixture if it is not saturated with the usual portion. A child who regularly eats less than the prescribed amount should be given a more concentrated, protein-rich food( cottage cheese, meat, yolk) as prescribed by the doctor. If the child requires an additional amount of food, increase the proportion of vegetables, fruits, juices in the diet.