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  • Application of fertilizers

    In the non-chernozem zone of Russia, soil types predominate, requiring a constant increase in fertility through the introduction of various organic and mineral fertilizers. At the same time, organic fertilizers( manure, com-posts, peat compost) are especially valuable for apple and pear trees, but peat and feces in pure form are best used not directly, but for the preparation of good compost. The system of fertilizing fruit trees is built taking into account not only the breed-varietal characteristics, but also the age of the trees, the rootstock, the properties and fertility of the soil, the productivity of the plantations, and also the system of soil content in the garden. Good pre-planting of soil with fertilizers, as a rule, ensures normal mineral nutrition of trees and their growth in the first 2-3 years after planting. If at the same time the growths of shoots noticeably weaken, then in spring nitrogen fertilizers are introduced into the soil. In orchards where phosphate and potassium fertilizers were not preplanted, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are introduced into the soil when they are found to weaken growth and establish signs of phosphorus and potassium deficiency by chemical soil analysis and

    leaf diagnostics.

    leaf diagnostics Soil as well as leaf vegetation diagnostics is based on the fact that there is a close relationship between the yield and the amount of nutrients in the soil and leaves of the fruit. The amount of nutrients that must be applied with organic and mineral fertilizers, so that the trees yield a high yield of good quality, depends on the nutrient reserves in the soil and the nutrient content in the leaves of the trees. Therefore, for the calculation of fertilizer doses, the average estimated doses of fertilizers developed by research institutions on the basis of experiments are used. For example, nitrogen is not added to the nitrogen fertilizer when the nitrogen content is excessive. With an optimal nitrogen content, an average dose of 9 grams of active substance per 1 m2 is applied in the leaves, while an undersized one-and-a-half dose is applied in the leaves. The following fertilizer doses per 1 m2 are recommended: in a young garden 9 g nitrogen, b phosphorus, 9 tons potassium in active substance and 6 kg manure;in the fruiting garden, respectively, 9.6, 12 and 6 kg of

    manure. The main way of application of fertilizers in the garden is to make them under a digging into the trunks, where the main part of the root system is located. Up to 4 years of life, the trunk is 2 times larger than the crown, but not

    . Under favorable nutritional conditions, trees accumulate reserve nutrients in the roots, trunk, branches, which can be used during periods of their growth and fruiting. When introducing fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account the regularities of the location of the root system. On sod-podzolic soils at a young age of trees, a high density of roots is observed under the crown, that is, most of the growing roots are near the trunk. The bulk of the roots lies in a layer of soil up to 60 cm deep.

    is less than 1.5 m, at 4-6 years of age it is 1.5 times larger. The older the tree, the larger the near-trunk circle and the higher the fertilizer dose. In autumn, the trunks are dug with organic, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers. The treatment is carried out to a depth of 22 cm at the periphery of the crown and 8-10 cm near the trunk. For in order to enable the cor-( continuation after the tables)

    Application of organic fertilizers for fruit trees

    Drill disk,

    Manure

    or peatfeed

    diameter, and

    compost( kg per tree)

    2

    5

    2,5

    10

    3

    15

    3,5

    20

    4: .

    25

    4,5-5

    . 35-40

    Doses of mineral fertilizers for unfruitful trees( g per 1 tree)

    Culture Azdt

    Superphosphate, 18 % P205

    Potassium salt, 40% K2O

    . ..: ::..: ::: & gt;: o & gt;: :.: :;: :::. ..

    In 1st and 2nd year

    Apple tree, pear, cherry, cherry 200-300

    Plum, peach,apricot 300-500

    For the 3rd and 4th year

    Apple tree 200-500

    150-450

    200-400

    Pear 200-500

    150-450

    150-300

    Oshwa 300-600

    200-500

    150-300

    Cherries 400-800

    150-300

    200-400

    Cherry 300-600

    150-300

    200-400

    The Persiank, apricot

    300-600 200-400 150-300

    Doses fertilizer for fruit trees( 1 g per tree)

    :

    : ::

    . ...... .:. ..:

    . .....;: ".:":. ..:. ..:

    & gt;: & gt;: :-

    Superphosphate,

    Potassium salt,

    Culture

    Nitrogen, 28.5%

    18 % P2 ° 5

    40%

    k2o

    Early years of fruiting

    ( 4-8 years)

    Apple tree

    700-1400

    400-800

    450-900

    Pear

    700-1400

    400-800

    250-500

    Sweet cherry

    600-1200

    300-800

    450-750

    Zishnya

    600-1200

    300-800

    450-800

    The peach,plums

    apricot

    900-1800 Subsequent years of fruit

    400-900 mating

    450-600

    Apple tree

    1200-2000

    700

    Pear

    1200-2000

    700-1400

    600-1000

    Sweet cherry, cherry

    1200-1800

    700-1300

    750-1250

    Peach, plum

    apricot

    1400-2400

    900-1400

    750-1000

    Doses of fertilizers for berry crops( g per 1 weave)

    Culture

    |||

    Nitrogen, 20.5%

    800-1200

    Phosphorus, 18 %

    Potassium; 40%

    Raspberries, blackberries

    400-750

    1200-1800

    Currants and gooseberries

    1000-2000

    300-600

    1000-2000

    Strawberries:

    before plantation laying

    600-1000

    1200-1500

    from 1year of fruiting

    400-1000

    s following years after

    berries collection

    300-500

    yum mastered fertilized soil layer, in subsequent years the area is treated to a depth of 8-10 cm. After 2-3 years, fertilizers are introduced secondarily, and the soilon the periphery the crowns are processed to a depth of 20-22 cm. Good results are obtained by applying fertilizersin the grooves. With this method, grooves with a depth of 40-50 cm and a width of about 50 cm are dug from both sides of the tree and organic, phosphoric and potassium fertilizers are introduced into them. For 1 m3 of the groove, you can give about 4-8 buckets of humus or 10-20 buckets of peat or 6-10 buckets of compost. In addition, up to 1 kg of superphosphate and 200 g of potassium salt are added. The next year fertilizers are introduced into grooves from the other two sides of the tree. You can apply fertilizer in 1 year in the ring groove along the periphery of the crown. Every 4-5 years, the fertilizer application is repeated, and the grooves are further away from the tree, closer to the middle of the rows, due to the growth of the crown. On light sandy loamy soils in grooves, it is very useful to make interlayers from a mixture of clay and peat or earth compost, as they retain moisture and nutrients in the soil. The method of focal application of fertilizers is widespread - in the holes, which should be digged on the area of ​​the stock circle at a depth of 25-30 cm away from the trunk, so as not to damage the roots. In the holes make a mixture of organic, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers.

    Nitrogen fertilizers are readily mobile in the soil. Therefore, sealing them in autumn in the soil is inadvisable, since they can be washed by meltwater. These fertilizers are used in the spring when carrying out the first tillage in the garden. On soils of light mechanical composition, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced in 2 doses, since it is possible to wash them out with the moisture of precipitating precipitation from the root layer. In fruit-bearing gardens with a high yield of 2/3 nitrogen fertilizers can be made in the early spring, and 1/3 of the dose - before the June fall of the ovaries.

    When applying fertilizers for fruit crops, care should be taken to combat weed vegetation. Destruction of it is achieved by treating the soil on the near-trunk circles, which also contributes to the improvement of the air regime of the soil, the accumulation of moisture and nutrients. Perekopku pristvolnyh circles better to hold garden forks. When digging with a shovel, it is placed along the radius of the tree trunk, so that the roots are less damaged. The processing time of the truncated circles is September-October.

    In years with unfavorable conditions for the development of fruit trees( freezing, weak vegetation), besides root fertilization, root fertilizing is carried out. For root feeding, organic( slurry, bird droppings - 0.6-1 kg per 10 m2, slurry is diluted with water 1: 6 or 1: 10) and mineral( urea, nitrophos - 3-4 g per 10 m2) fertilizer.

    Compost should be constantly poured under berries, non-forbidden litter organic material is recommended to mulch the soil under bushes and the space between rows.

    Directly well reparted manure is applied in the proportion of 3-4 buckets per 1 m2 for raspberries, currants, gooseberries and strawberries before laying a garden and planting crops, the application of manure in the specified amount is repeated every 2-3 years.

    Throughout the growing season, plants need different nutrients and to varying degrees. In the period of flowering and fruit formation, the need for plants in nutrients sharply increases. In the spring-summer period, plants must be provided with all necessary elements, especially nitrogen, in connection with the need to increase flowering activity, fruit formation, shoot growth, crop formation and fruit buds. In the summer-autumn period, the second root growth wave passes, the development of fruit kidneysand the accumulation of nutrients. Nutrients accumulated in the summer-autumn period affect not only the quality of the fruits of the crop of the given year, but also the winter hardiness and productivity of the next year. In the summer-autumn period, it is necessary to provide complete phosphorus-potassium nutrition with a decrease in the supply of plants with nitrogen.

    Preparation of fruit crops for wintering

    Good preparation of fruit plants for wintering plays an important role in ensuring normal growth, development and fruiting of garden plantations. After the fall of the fall, in the case of arid autumn and a high yield on the trees, podzimni watering is carried out. Especially important is such watering on soils of light mechanical composition. Under all crops, organic fertilizers or compost and mineral fertilizers( phosphorus and potash) are introduced, then the soil is digested. Autumn digging of the garden differs from the spring in that the soil layers are not broken up or loosened, since the coarse-soil soil retains more moisture in the late autumn and early spring period. In adult trees( apple and pear), once in 2-3 years, with special scrapers or metal brushes, old dead cortical layers are cleaned on the branches and forks of branches, which are then collected and burned. This allows you to destroy the eggs of various pests and reduce the number of pathogens. All cracks, hollows, places of sunburn and frostbite are cleaned to a healthy tissue, disinfected with 5% ferrous sulfate solution or 3% solution of nitrophene. Dupla, after stripping and disinfection, is sealed with cement and sand( in a ratio of 1: 3).

    At the end of winter, more often in March, sunburns appear on trees, frosts on the trunk, stem, main branches and the root neck. Their appearance is associated mainly with the withering away of a part of the bark and wood due to sharp temperature fluctuations in the cortex during day and night, reaching several tens of degrees. The most reliable way to combat burns is to whitewash the trees with a lime solution in early November, before the soil freezes, or in January-February. The surface of the trunk, painted in white, reflects direct sunlight, prevents heating of the bark, and the possibility of a sunburn disappears. The stem and the bases of skeletal branches are covered with lime. The recipe for lime whitewash is simple: 2-3 kg of freshly lime, 7-8 l of water, 300-500 g of casein glue and 100 g of preheated carpenter's glue and 100 grams of mealy paste with the addition of 2% solution of common salt. Slaked

    The shrubby fruit crops are susceptible to the effects of frost by pulling branches to the center, tying them with lapnik, and from above are covered with sackcloth, tarpaulin or other dense cloth and fix the covering material. You can also use reed beds

    Young seedlings in the first year of wintering, as well as frost-sensitive fruit trees in the winter should be insulated. To do this, the tree stems should be wrapped in a dense cloth, tied with straw or linden

    lime diluted in water and mixed with hot glue, paste and salt solution, mix thoroughly to achieve a uniform consistency.

    Special paints BC-54 and VD-KCH-577 are also used for the protective coating of trunks and skeletal tree branches.

    In winter, big damage to young and fruit bearing fruit trees is caused by mouse rodents, hares and water rats that eat up the bark and the bases of skeletal branches. To protect the trees from rodents and frostbites, their trunks are tied( in November) with roofing felt, roofing paper, straw, branches, white heavy paper or a metal mesh, periodically compacting and trampling the snow in the trunks. The trunks are tied tightly, without lumens, to the ground, and the bottom of the strapping is sprinkled with earth. You can not cover the trunks of trees with frightening substances - nitrol, autoclave, chemicals, as the wood tissues under the influence of these substances lose their winter hardiness and die from freezing.

    The lower part of the trunk is hilled to a height of 15-20 cm. When the temperature of the root-uninhabited soil layer decreases, the manure, peat, sawdust, foliage, or freeze the ice on the trunk circles, warms the hulls with soil. In years with abundant snow cover, if the temperature of the air has dropped to -30 ° C, snow is shoved onto the stem and the skeletal branches, while not revealing the soil under the crown. At a temperature of about 0 ° C snow is brushed from the branches to avoid their breakdown. In a thaw in young trees that have not been tied up since autumn, they heavily trample the snow around the boles so that they can not be damaged by mice. When the lower branches of young trees freeze in a dense plant, they destroy it. After the descent of the snow cover, remove the binding from the boles of trees and proceed to pruning. For better wintering of raspberry its stems are tied and bent to the ground;To avoid breakage of individual branches of the bushes, currants are also associated. In the absence or a small layer of snow( 1-2 cm), warming strawberry beds with lapnik and other covering material is carried out.