• Fennel useful properties

    Synonyms for : dill, medicinal, dill, volotsky.

    Family Umbrella( Celery) - Apiaceae

    The generic name comes from the Latin word foenurn - hay - due to a fragrant as in a hay, odor or because the leaves are in dry form similar to hay. Species definition means "ordinary".

    Botanical description. Biennial or perennial herbaceous plant with spindle-shaped stem root. Stem erect, finely ribbed, branched, 90-200 cm high. Leaves alternate with membranous vaginas, many-reedately divided into threadlike long segments. The flowers are small, yellow, collected in complex umbrellas with unequal rays, without a wrapper and a wrapper. In appearance, the plant is very similar to fennel, but has a different smell. The fruit is an oblong viscous fruit, which decomposes on maturation into two half-fruits.

    Blossoms in July - August. Fruits ripen since September.

    Collection and drying of .Fennel fruits mature not simultaneously. In the past, fruits are kept on the central umbrellas, and in 10-20 days on umbrellas of the following orders. Ripe fruits begin to crumble. To prevent large losses, fennel harvesting begins when the fruit ripens on the central umbrellas and umbrellas of the first order. Harvest the converted harvester. The fruits discharged from the bunker are transported to a covered current for drying and subsequent purification. Purify and sort the fruit on the grain cleaning machines with the appropriate selection of sieves.

    Medicinal raw materials. Finished raw materials - fennel fruits( Fructus Foeniculi) - consists of individual semi-fruit and whole-length, 4-10 mm long, 1.5-4 mm wide greenish-brown color. Semi-fruiting with five strongly protruding ribs. The taste is sweetish-spicy.

    GF X allows: moisture not more than 14%;ash not more than 10%;damaged and underdeveloped fennel fruits not more than 1%;essential oil impurities not more than 1%;organic impurity not more than 0.6%;mineral impurity not more than 0.5%.The essential oil content should be at least 3%.

    The fruit of the fennel - Anethum graveolens L. is most often found as the essential oil impurity. These are brown flat half-fruits 3-5 mm long with strongly protruding straw-yellow side ribs. The smell is spicy, the taste is unsweetened.

    Chemical composition. Fennel fruits contain 3-6.5% essential oil, which contains up to 60% anethole, camphor isomer fenchon( 11-12%), methylhavicol, anisic acid and aldehyde, a-pinene, a-flalandrene, etc. In additionMoreover, fatty oil, protein substances, flavonoids( quercetin, quercetin-3-arabinoside, isoramnetin, coumarin umbel-lifferon) are contained.

    Biological features of .Fennel hibernates only in the conditions of the Crimea, the North Caucasus and in some southern regions of Ukraine. In the north, it is cultivated as an annual plant, as its crops are frozen in winter.

    Distribution. It grows wild in the South, Middle and Western Europe, North Africa, West Asia, Japan, meets in the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It grows mainly on dry rocky slopes, near shelter and roads.

    Cultivated in Romania, Germany, France, Czech Republic, Hungary, Holland, Italy, Spain, India, South Africa, USA and Japan. In Ukraine it is cultivated mainly in Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi and Chernigov regions, as well as in Russia - the Voronezh region and the Caucasus.

    Fennel, like other plants of the umbrella family, is typical for Southern Europe, especially for the Mediterranean region. It has taken root in many non-tropical parts of the world - Japan, Persia, India and the USA.It grows mainly near the sea. In Northern Europe came through the Romans, and in the US-the first settlers from Europe( in California it became weed).Fennel - frost resistant perennial plant;leaves are bluish-green, feathery;Yellow flowers collected in umbrellas give seeds. A related plant derived in Italy is the Florentine fennel, or finocchio( F. v. Dulce).The fruits of this annual plant with a rounded stem are the bulbs. They, like cirrus leaves and seeds, are eaten raw in salads.

    Fennel is known from time immemorial. Chinese, Indians and Egyptians used it both in cooking and in medicine. Theophrastus and Pliny preferred his anise, and Dioscorides and Hippocrates claimed that thanks to him, the inflow of breast milk( a property highly valued to this day) is increasing. Pliny highly valued it as a medicinal herb that helps with eye diseases. The Romans used fennel as a digestive aid. At the end of the meal served as a pie, which consisted of seeds of dill and other plants.(In India and now the last dish is served "paan" - seeds of various plants, including sweet fennel.) The Greeks were convinced that this herb helps to lose weight. And perhaps, not without reason: fennel has a certain degree of diuretic properties. Charles the Great ordered to grow it in his gardens, and Saint Hildegard praised this plant for its medicinal properties. The first mention of essential oil from dill is found in the book "The Art of Distillation," written by Jerome Branshwig in the year 1,500. In the 19th century.doctors Kazen, Bodar and Bontan carried it to the herbs, which have a strengthening and carminative effect, promoting digestion, milk production, the onset of menstruation. More recently, Dr. Leclerc and Mori described the cases when fennel helped with gout, rheumatism and kidney dysfunction( especially with kidney stones).

    Chemical composition of .Fennel fruits contain about 2-6% of essential oil and 12-18% of fatty oil. The main active substance of essential oil is anethole( 50-60%).In addition, essential oil includes: fenon, pinene, fellandren, camphene, dipentene, methylhavicol, etc. After extraction of oil in fennel fruits, up to 14-22% of proteins remain. The composition of fennel fatty oil includes: petrosellin, oleic, linoleic and palmic acids.

    Agricultural machinery for growing .Site selection. Fertile chernozems and calcareous clay loam are most favorable for fennel. Fennel should be cultivated in a crop rotation, since its permanent culture in one place causes the development of a large number of agricultural pests and diseases. The best forerunners are winter crops that go along fertilized pairs, and tilled crops sown on fertilizers.

    Soil cultivation is carried out according to the system of autumn plowing to a depth of 22-25 cm. If the fennel is sown after the row crops, then plowing plowing follows immediately after the harvesting of the predecessor. Early in the spring, plowland is harrowed, and then pre-sowing cultivation is carried out with simultaneous harrowing.

    Application of fertilizers. Given that the fennel goes after fertilized predecessors, only mineral fertilizers( 5-6 c / ha of superphosphate, 2-3 c / ha of ammonium sulphate and 1.5-2.0 c / ha of potassium salt) contribute to autumn plowing.

    Reproduction. Depending on the growing conditions fennel can be sown in three terms: in spring, summer and late autumn - under winter. In spring sowing, early harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation are performed. In the southern regions fennel is sown in July-August. At this time, the plants manage to take root well and tolerate the winter satisfactorily. Subzimnium sowing is carried out by seeders with rows between 60-70 cm in late autumn so that the seeds do not have time to ascend from autumn. The rate of spring sowing is 8-10 kg / ha, and the sub-winter crop is 10-12 kg / ha. The seeding depth at the spring sowing is 2-3 cm, and at the podzimnem - 1 cm. The distance between the plants in the rows is 30 cm.

    Care of the plantations. The first loosening is performed immediately after emergence, while weeds weed in rows. Shortly after this, the rows are loosened. During the summer, three to four cultivations and two to three weed control are produced.

    If in the first year of the culture the fennel gave ripe fruit, after its harvesting in the late autumn, a deep loosening is carried out in order to cover up the grounds of the bushes with earth and thus protect them from winter frost. In early spring, in the second year of life, transverse harrowing is required - to destroy the crust formed in winter.

    On those plantations where fruiting during the first year of culture was not, for the winter leave the stems of fennel to hold snow.

    During the summer one or two top dressings are produced by local fertilizers at the rate of 3-4 c / ha of chicken manure and 2-3 cc / ha of ash. From mineral fertilizers make 1.0-1.2 c / ha of ammonium sulfate, 2.0-2.5 c / ha of superphosphate and 1.0-1.2 c / ha of potassium salt.

    In areas with more severe winters, where the fennel can freeze, its roots are cut out after cutting the stems and stored in trenches or cellars at a temperature of 1-2 ° C, and in spring they are again planted in pre-prepared areas.

    Harvesting. Fennel is removed when half the umbrellas are bitten. Like other umbellate plants, its seeds easily fall off, so this plant should be cleaned early in the morning or late in the evening on dew.

    Fennel is cleaned with a re-equipped harvester. Fruits ripen at the same time( earlier in the middle umbrellas), therefore, it is rational to clean it in two steps: first, all the middle umbrellas are cut with the freshened fruits, and after a few days, when the fruits are bitten on the side umbrellas, they are finally cleaned.

    The fruits are threshed on ordinary threshers. The threshed and finally dried fruits are cleaned on the rolls and sorts. The average yield of seeds is 12-16 centners per hectare, in the best farms a yield of 20-25 centner / ha is achieved.

    Seed growing. Agrotechnics of fennel cultivation on seeds is basically the same as caraway seeds.

    Medicinal raw materials are fruits and grass. Fruits are harvested as they mature, dried and powdered. The raw materials are stored in closed jars. Shelf life 2 years.

    In the seeds of dill, there is an essential oil consisting of a mixture of different terpenes: c-carbon, felandrene, d-limonene, dallapion. The grass of the plant also contains essential oil, but its composition is somewhat different. In addition to these terpenes, which make up the essential oil of seeds, it contains terpine, dipentene, and proazulen. Fresh herbs in addition to essential oils contain vitamin C, carotene and camphorol.

    Application of .Fennel seeds are used for medicinal purposes as a remedy for cough and as a laxative, promoting better digestion. Sometimes they are prescribed for cholelithiasis and kidney stone diseases. In the alcoholic beverage industry, they are used in the manufacture of liqueurs, liquors and absinthe. In perfumery production of fennel seeds, an anethole is prepared for the manufacture of dental powders, toilet water, etc. In addition, fennel is used in the soap industry and veterinary medicine. Fennel leaves are used in cooking as a spice, as a salad, garnish and seasoning for various dishes. Seeds and oil are used in the manufacture of confectionery products, wines, marinades, tea, beverages, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc.

    It is established that dill herb infusion reduces intra-arterial blood pressure, dilates blood vessels, stimulates the activity of a tired heart,relaxes the intestines, reducing its peristalsis and increasing diuresis. The herb of dill stimulates the appetite, has an antibacterial effect, increases the body's resistance.

    In scientific medicine, the fruits of dill are used as hypotensive, sedative, anti-spasmodic, intensifying bile secretion, laxative and meteorism-reducing agent, with hypertension and atherosclerosis( especially with headaches), with liver and gastrointestinal tract diseases.

    Herb infusion is used for hypertension I and II stages. Powder from seeds is used as an expectorant, carminative, choleretic, laxative and diuretic. There are indications of the use of dill seeds in the form of powder or infusion as a means of stimulating lactation.

    In folk medicine, the herb of dill is used as a diuretic, expectorant, choleretic, exciting, firming( especially fennel), a laxative. Preparations from dill are shown at a meteorism, a constipation( a mix of a dill with other plants), at a chronic colitis.

    Fruits in the form of powders, infusions and decoctions are used for digestive disorders, abdominal pain, liver disease, high blood pressure, dyspnea, respiratory diseases, children given with dyspepsia, diarrhea, used as a stimulant for the separation of milk from nursing mothers;broth of fruits and herbs - with inflammation of the bladder.

    As an external remedy preparations from dill are used in the form of lotions for ophthalmic diseases and pustular lesions of the skin, as an antiparasitic agent( from lice) - as an ointment on lard.

    Essential oil

    Description .Although all parts of the plant have a fragrance, only the ground seeds serve as raw material for essential oil. Usually it is colorless, only sometimes it is a pale yellow color. The smell is characteristic and strong, reminiscent of anise, but thinner and with a strong shade of camphor.

    Main components: anethole - up to 60%, anisaldehyde, camphene, d-phenone, dipentene, estragol, phenon, fellandren and pinene.

    Essential oil - Oleum Foeniculi - 2-3 drops of children and 5-10 drops for adults on a piece of sugar or with honey prescribed for bronchitis and spasms of the intestines.

    Essential oil, which has a strong smell, reminiscent of the anise smell, is used in perfumery in the manufacture of colognes and perfumes.

    The properties are similar to dill essential oil. It is used for inhalation, as an expectorant, inside - to improve appetite, digestion, as a diuretic, tonic, antispasmodic, milk-milk agent.

    For the prevention and treatment of inflammation of the gums, the following mixture is used: fennel - 4 drops, lavender - 2, sage - 2, mint - 2, pine or fir - 2 drops of essential oil - add 50 drops of this mixture in 50 ml of water. Rinse your mouth 3 times a day. Inside 2-3 drops of honey.

    Caution. Anetol in combination with estragol( methylhavicol) can be dangerous. In my practice there were no cases of a negative reaction to the oil, but those with sensitive skin, of course, should beware.

    Recipes of

    Broth 1: 1h.spoon pounded fruit on a glass of boiling water, insist 20 minutes;use 2 tbsp each.spoons or 1/4 cup 3-4 times a day.

    Broth 2: 1 tbsp.a spoonful of fruits or herbs with fruits brew a glass of boiling water, insist, cool, strain. Take 1/2 cup 3 times a day( carminative, choleretic).

    Powder( with sugar to taste);Half or full of a spoonful 3 times a day( flooded with water).

    Fennel oil - infusion of fennel fruits on sunflower oil;2-3 drops of sugar( suck) 3 times a day with flatulence.

    Mixture 1( used for constipation): fennel fruit -2 parts, juniper berries - 2 parts;pound and mix with 1 part of the powder from the dry leaves of aloe.1 teaspoon of the mixture for a glass of boiling water, 1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day. This drug regulates the functional activity of the stomach.

    Mixture 2( used for urinary retention): ground dill fruit - 2 tbsp.spoons, root elder in powder -

    3 tbsp.spoons, camel hay in powder - 1 tbsp.spoon, aloe in powder - 1 tbsp.a spoon. Take 1 tbsp.a spoonful of the mixture on a glass of boiling water;take 1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.

    With increased excitability and insomnia drink an infusion of 1 glass at night( see broth 2).

    Action and application. Expectorant effect of essential oil is associated with anethole. Like anise, fennel is prescribed with atony of the stomach, intestinal spasms, dyspepsia, flatulence, strengthens lactation.

    Dill water - Aqua Foeniculi is prescribed by 1 teaspoon to children and 1 tablespoon to an adult 3-6 times a day with flatulence.

    For diseases of the stomach and intestines, it is recommended that the infusion of fruit from 5 g. Per 200 ml of water per 1/4 cup during the day.

    For medicinal purposes. Fennel has long been considered a means of promoting the assimilation of food;as well as a dill related to it, it is a part of the medicinal water that is given to children when they are in the abdomen.(With colic, children can be helped by boiled carrots and dill.)

    Fennel is a wonderful fortifying agent that helps restore muscle energy. Especially it is useful to sportsmen and those who are engaged in sports, and also recovering from illness. Frequent use of fennel, fennel, dill broth will greatly benefit your health.

    Dill broth. Put 7.5 ml( 0.5 tablespoon) of the ground seeds in a kettle and fill with 600 ml of boiling water. Insist 7 minutes, then strain and drink. You can sweeten with honey( useful for athletes).Drink in the morning or throughout the day as a firming remedy.

    Strengthening bath.

    Add 10 drops of oil to hot water, drop into the tub and lie in a relaxed state for 10 minutes.(The bath is also useful for those with a urinary system disease, such as cystitis.) Then massage the legs, hands, trunk, back of the neck and feet using a body wash: 50 ml of soybean oil, 4 drops of wheat germ oil and15 fennel.

    The infusion of seeds cleans the skin and gives it a healthy color.

    Fennel also helps with inflammation and swelling of the eyes and with conjunctivitis. In 600 ml of water, boil for a few minutes 7 5 ml of crushed seeds. Let it brew, cool and strain. Use in the eye bath and several times wash both eyes. If you do this procedure several times a day, then soon everything will pass away. If it does not get easier, see a doctor.

    In the cooking of

    , the grass is used mainly in fish dishes. Porous leaves are put in fish seasonings, soup and salads;whole fish in the bosom of nature is often fried on dried stems. Leaves for aroma are put in oils and vinegars from herbs, and also use in preparation of white sauce for asparagus with parsley. Seeds for flavor are added to the smoked Italian sausage. In addition, fennel is one of five Chinese spices. Its seeds are often used in curry, when baking bread, add for flavor, like a drug lover, into crushed sea salt. They are especially tasty with cucumbers. They are mixed with cheese, they are sprinkled with steamed vegetables. Stems are cooked just like celery stalks, and the roots were once candied.

    Grass and oil used in the preparation of some alcoholic beverages, mostly aniseed or something like pastis( usually Chinese anise).Inside the bottle of French herbal liqueur «La Titaine» is the stem of fennel.

    Bulbous fennel on many properties corresponds to grassy. It is eaten raw in a salad or cooked. For use in raw form, carefully trim the fennel stalk( do not discard the leaves: they are also used for cooking) and cut it into slices. Sprinkle top with chopped parsley, pour olive oil of the first pressing, put salt and pepper to taste. This is a great side dish, especially to fish.

    As a spice is used in the production of liqueurs, confectionery products( cookies, pies, puddings).Fennel is used as an aromatic seasoning for soups, vegetable and meat dishes. Use it and when preparing fish dishes, especially carp. It gives a pleasant taste to sauerkraut, canned cucumber and cold appetizers. Young shoots and thickened leaf petioles can be whitened and consumed in fresh and boiled form.

    Stewed fennel

    It is served both as a main course and as a side dish for game, veal or chicken.

    For preparation you will need:

    4 large fennel bulbs, salt and freshly ground pepper, 1 clove garlic, peeled and cut into two halves, about 85 ml of first-stage olive oil, 7 00 g of grated Goyuer cheese.

    Gently treat the bulbs, cut them in half and boil in salt water for 30 minutes. Pour out the water. Rub the dish with halves of garlic cloves and sprinkle with olive oil. Put the halves of the bulbs in a dish and sprinkle with olive oil again. Season with salt and pepper, then sprinkle with crushed cheese. Cover with greaseproof paper and cook in an oven preheated to 180-200 ° C until the mass turns brown( about 35 minutes).