Useful and medicinal properties of the podophyllous thyroid

  • Useful and medicinal properties of the podophyllous thyroid

    Synonyms: podophyll American, May apple, nogolist.

    Description. A small perennial herbaceous plant of the Barberry family( Berberidaceae).Rhizome creeping, long. The stem is single, smooth with a height of 40-50 cm, ending in a large flower and two opposite leaves. On one stem develops only two, rarely three long-petioled leaves. The plate of the leaf is located above the ground in the form of a shield( hence the podophyll of the American and was called the thyroid or guttural).Leaves large - up to 30 cm in diameter. Each plant has one white flower.

    Fruit is a multi-seeded single-berry berry up to 5 cm long, ovoid, yellow, sourish taste. Berry has up to 50 pieces of seeds, which are similar in shape to pear seeds. Blooms in May;fruits ripen in mid-August. The mass of 1000 seeds is 15-19 g.

    Medicinal raw materials: rhizomes.

    Biological features. Podophyll develops well in the shade, in areas protected from the sun. Growth podophyll in spring begins at a temperature of 5-7 ° C, and intensive development occurs at 12-15 ° C;in the case of higher temperatures, plant growth slows down.

    Distribution. In the wild, it occurs in North Africa, North America( Canada), in the forest-steppe zone of South America, covered with coniferous forests, and in the Great Lakes region of mixed forests. Consequently, this species grows in the temperate-cold climate zone, in the temperate-warm climate zone and in the subtropical zone( Florida peninsula).It grows on moist soils rich in humus. Podophyll is imported to many countries of the world.the possibilities of growing podophyll in the CIS are reported by a number of authors. Studies indicate the possibility of introducing this plant into the culture in the CIS.Particularly favorable for the cultivation of the podophyll were the Polissya regions of Ukraine.

    Chemical composition. The rhizomes of the podophyll contain resinous substances, lignans( derivatives of podophyllotoxin and peltatin).

    Application. From the rhizomes and subordinal roots of the podophyllum, a resin is obtained, which is one of the strongest laxatives without subsequent fixing properties. In the US, the fruits of the podophyll of the thyroid gland are used for food.

    Podophyll preparations are also used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms, condyloma, papillomas, skin diseases, in the treatment of diseases of the blood and lymph glands.

    Agrotechnics of cultivation. Site selection. The most favorable soils for podophyll are humus, fertile, forest with sufficient moisture. The best predecessors are black couples and row crops.

    Soil treatment. For cultivation of the podophyll with rhizomes, autumn plowing of the soil should be carried out in August-early September to a depth of 30 cm. On small podzolic soils plowing is required to the full depth with a plow with a skimmer and simultaneous application of manure and lime.

    In the early spring, the moisture should be harrowed, and if the soil is heavily compacted over the winter, it must be plowed to a depth of 14-16 cm. Before planting the rhizomes, the soil must remain in the vapor state.

    Application of fertilizers. Compared to autumn plowing, compost should be used at a rate of 10-15 t / ha;while the yield of rhizomes increases by 35-40%.During the sowing-planting( in the spring) fertilizers are introduced in the amount of: 1.5-2.0 c / ha superphosphate, 1.0-1.5 c / ha ammonium nitrate and 0.8-1.0 c / ha potassium salt.

    Reproduction. Podophyll can be propagated in two ways: sowing seeds directly into the soil and dividing rhizomes into parts. With seed propagation, the first real leaf appears in the spring in the second year of life, and the second, the six-lobed leaf, in the summer of the second year or in the spring of the third year. As an exception, very rarely a third leaf appears in some plants. Flowering does not occur until the third year after sowing.

    The second method of reproduction is the most effective - the division of rhizomes into parts. At the same time, 25-30 plants can be obtained from one rhizome, which, when planted with a well-developed kidney, produce leaf and flowers in the spring, fruits in the summer, and a ready-made root in the autumn of next year.

    Care for plantations. Podophyll requires high humidity of soil, air and suffers from drought. Therefore, during the summer it is necessary to produce four or five loosening rows, with simultaneous weeding and watering as needed.

    Harvesting. Roots are excavated in September, immediately cleaned of stems, washed and cut into parts 10-15 cm long.

    Drying. The washed and cut roots of the podophyll are dried in the sun. Dried roots have a brown color, and at the break - grayish-white. The taste is sweet at first, and then bitter-bitter.

    Packing. Roots are packaged in bales or bags of 20-50 kg.

    Storage. Harvested raw materials must be stored in a dry, well-ventilated room on racks or podtovarnike.