• Ovarian cyst - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

    The name "cyst" comes from the Greek word kystis, which means a bubble - it's a small pouch filled with liquid or other contents that forms in the woman's ovaries. Most cysts are harmless, but some can cause problems such as ruptures, bleeding or pain, you may need to remove the cyst( s) by surgery.

    What are the causes of the origin of ovarian cysts? Whether it is possible to treat a cyst conservatively or at once operative intervention is necessary? And then, is it necessary, in general, to interfere with the situation if it is about education, about a half centimeter in diameter, that does not hurt, and was discovered quite accidentally during a prophylactic ultrasound, and "his doctor does not even find it"?

    Overview of the ovarian cyst

    Ovarian cysts are a benign tumor that belongs to the tumor-like processes, which is a cavity that is filled with liquid contents.

    Very often seen in young women, it is much less common in women after 50 years.

    It is important to understand how the ovarian cyst is formed.

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    Women usually have two ovaries producing eggs, each roughly the size of a walnut, located on either side of the uterus. Every month, the right or left ovary produces an egg, and this process begins the woman's menstrual cycle each month. The egg, enclosed in a sac called a follicle, grows and ripens inside the ovary under the influence of the hormone estrogen, until the uterus is ready to receive the egg. This cycle occurs every month and usually ends when the egg is not fertilized. If the egg is not fertilized, the entire contents of the uterus is removed with physiological excreta. This is called menstruation.

    In ultrasound images, ovarian cysts resemble vesicles if the cyst contains only a liquid that is surrounded by very thin walls. Such cysts are called functional, or simple. If the follicle can not rupture and release the egg, the liquid remains and can form ovarian cysts. As a rule, it happens on one of the ovaries. Small cysts( less than one centimeter) can appear in the normal ovary with the growth of the follicle.

    The vast majority of cysts are considered functional or physiological. In other words, they have nothing to do with the disease. Most ovarian cysts are benign, i.e.they are not cancerous, and many disappear on their own for several weeks without treatment. Ovarian cysts occur in women of all ages, but most often appear in women of childbearing age.

    Ovarian cysts can be classified as benign or cancerous growths. Although a cyst can be found in ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts are usually a normal process or harmless( benign).

    More details on ovarian cysts, which are benign neoplasm( not oncology)

    There are different types of ovarian cysts:

    • of the yellow body cyst;
    • is follicular;
    • is paraovarian;
    • endometrioid;
    • is mucinous;
    • is dermoid.

    Yellow body cyst is a tumor with thickened walls, filled with yellow liquid, blood can be added to it. Usually such a growth occurs only on one side. The reason for the appearance is that after ovulation the follicle does not fill with cells of the yellow body, instead the follicle grows and becomes filled with liquid.

    The follicular cyst and cyst of the yellow body are credited to the functional formations that form in the ovary itself. The walls of benign neoplasms are formed from a highly stretched follicle or yellow body. The reason for their formation is a hormonal imbalance. Usually, such formations are not large in size and grow in the direction of the abdominal cavity.

    A paravarian cyst is formed from an epididymis that is located above the ovary and is a single-chambered oval or rounded growth that is filled with a clear liquid. The walls of such a cyst are transparent and thin, having a network of small blood vessels. Very often a tumor is diagnosed in women 20-40 years old. The size of the neoplasm can be very different: from small to huge. Usually the ovary is not involved in the pathological process.

    Endometrioid cysts are characterized by the presence of endometriosis-like foci( see Endometriosis).

    Mucinous cysts are filled with mucous contents, often consist of several chambers and can reach large sizes. Mucinous and endometrioid cysts are able to degenerate into malignant tumors of the ovaries.

    Dermoid cysts contain parts of embryonic embryonic leaves, derivatives of connective takna( hair, fat, teeth, etc.).

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