Jun 08, 2018
This is tissue damage caused by exposure to low temperatures. When the body is weakened( illness, trauma, prolonged exposure to wind and cold) frostbite may occur even at a temperature of + 3-7 ° C.The distal parts of the extremities, ears and nose are more susceptible to frostbite.
Degree of frostbite
I degree: skin lesions in the form of various circulatory disorders. The skin is pale, somewhat swollen, its sensitivity is sharply reduced or absent. After warming, the skin acquires a blue-red color, the swelling increases, and dull aches are often observed. Later, scaling and itching of the skin is observed. The area of frostbite often remains very sensitive to cold.
II degree is manifested by necrosis of the superficial layers of the skin. When warming, the pale skin becomes purplish-cyanotic in color, the swelling of tissues rapidly spreading beyond the frostbite. In the zone of frostbite, bubbles are formed, filled with a clear or white liquid. The blood circulation is restored slowly. For this degree of frostbite are common phenomena: fever, chills, malaise, poor sleep and appetite. If a secondary infection does not attach, necrotic areas are gradually rejected in the damage area without the development of scars. The skin in this place for a long time remains cyanotic, with reduced sensitivity.
III degree - significant circulatory disorders( vascular thrombosis), which leads to necrosis of all layers of the skin and soft tissues at different depths, this depth being gradually revealed. In the early days - skin necrosis: bubbles filled with a liquid of dark cherry color. Damage to deep tissues is revealed after 3-5 days in the form of moist gangrene. The tissues are absolutely insensitive at palpation, but the patients suffer from painful pains. General phenomena at a given degree of frostbite are more pronounced. Intoxication manifests tremendous chills, significant deterioration of health, lethargy, apathy.
IV degree. Characterized by necrosis of all layers of tissue, including bone. The skin remains cold and absolutely insensitive, quickly covered with blisters filled with black liquid. The damage boundary is detected slowly. A distinct demarcation line appears after 10-17 days, dry gangrene arises. The general condition is extremely severe, there are dystrophic changes in the organs, pronounced intoxication, and pain.
The help of a paramedic is to immediately warm the victim and, especially, the frostbitten part of the body. The victim is placed in a warm room. It is necessary to restore blood circulation in the frost-bitten part of the body, this is achieved with the help of thermal baths. For 20-35 minutes, the water temperature is gradually increased from 20 to 40 ° C, while the limb is washed with soap from contaminants. After the bath, the damaged areas are dried, thick aseptic dressings are applied. Do not lubricate with grease, ointments, especially rub the skin with snow, which leads to more traumatization and infection.
Of great importance is the general warming of the victim. It is given hot tea, coffee, milk, pain medications are administered. Patients are hospitalized either in the surgical department of the hospital, or in the burn center.