Causes, symptoms, treatment of hypervitaminosis D - how to recognize the disease on time?
Mar 08, 2018
It is known that vitamin D is an important part of health, especially for children, when the child's locomotor system is being formed. The lack of this vitamin causes a serious complication - rickets. But very often there is an overdose of vitamin D, which leads to vitamin intoxication.
Causes of hypervitaminosis D
Hypervitaminosis D usually occurs when the daily dose of a vitamin that is 1 million IU is exceeded. Usually, her daily dose for a baby is only 400 IU.
To assimilate the vitamin, natural exposure to sunlight is needed, which are catalysts for the formation and assimilation of vitamin D.
In some cases, hypervitaminosis D occurs at low doses of vitamin intake, and can occur with increased sensitivity to the drug.
The most common occurrence of hypervitaminosis D in children, who are used to prevent rickets. Causes of overdose and hypervitaminosis D:
- Simultaneous intake of calcium, vitamin D, fish oil and ultraviolet radiation( to improve immunity).
- Take an alcohol solution in a dose of 10-20 drops for 3-4 weeks. As a result, a picture of acute hypervitaminosis develops.
- Take small doses( 2-5 drops) for 5-6 months.
- Hypervitaminosis develops with increased sensitivity or individual intolerance to vitamin D.
What happens with hypervitaminosis? Vitamin D normally regulates the metabolism in the body, and it is responsible for the normal content in the blood primarily of calcium, as well as other alkaline microelements that are responsible for the development of bone tissue.
When hypervitaminosis D develops a toxic effect on the cell membranes, and increases in calcium, acidosis, calcification of tissues and cells, hyperphosphaturia. In the urine appears a large number of salts of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium.
Symptoms of the disease
In case of hypervitaminosis, D symptoms develop mainly in children of the first 6 months of life. The picture of the disease in this case is acute, since small children poorly regulate metabolism. The chronic picture of the disease is characterized by similar symptoms, but they develop somewhat later in older children.
In adults, an overdose is rare, unless it is associated with the administration of large doses of preporat in certain diseases.
Symptoms of hypervitaminosis D:
- Symptoms of intoxication of the digestive system( decreased appetite, nausea, sometimes vomiting).
- Symptoms of dehydration( thirst, dry mouth, temperature rise).
- Stool disorder, diarrhea alternating with constipation.
- Symptoms of intoxication of the nervous system( loss of consciousness, sleep disturbance, muscle cramps).
- Premature closure of the fontanel.
- Increased weight deficit and symptoms of dystrophy.
- Violation of the cardiovascular system( palpitation, cyanosis of the skin, cardioneurosis, cardiopathy).
- Disruption of the urinary system( increased urine separation, chronic pyelonephritis).
- There is a reverse development of the thymus gland and a violation of metabolic processes.
- Immunity decreases.
- Blood pressure rises.
- There is an increase in the liver and spleen.
- In laboratory blood tests, an increased calcium content and a decrease in the amount of phosphorus are detected.
- In the urine appears protein, an admixture of blood, leukocytes.
In such cases it is usually said that mild rickets are better than a small overdose. It was noted that cases of hypervitaminosis are much more frequent than they manifest clinically and are diagnosed on time. Perhaps this is due to the fact that young mothers do not know the symptoms of vitamin D hypervitaminosis.
It should be remembered that children who underwent hypervitaminosis D remain with reduced immunity for life.
Treatment for ailment
Treatment of hypervitaminosis D is carried out in a hospital, especially severe forms of the disease. At the same time, they restrict the intake of the vitamin, and also take therapeutic measures to eliminate intoxication. Hypervitaminosis of vitamin D can cause changes in internal organs, therefore, corrective and restorative therapy is performed.
All foods rich in calcium and vitamin D should be excluded from food, including fish oil, cottage cheese, eggs, cow's milk. A good effect is provided by vitamin therapy, which includes drugs E and A, which have an antioxidant effect. For the normalization of metabolic processes, vitamin C and group B are prescribed.
The prevention of vitamin overdose is the exact dosage prescribed by the doctor. A self-reported increase in dose can lead to serious health complications.
In order not to cause an overdose, it is necessary to periodically check with a doctor who notes the condition of the fontanel, the bone system, the general development, the condition of the hair and skin of the child. If you have any doubts and a suspicion of an overdose, stop immediately and consult a doctor.