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  • Nutrients

    Description

    Disadvantage

    Surplus

    Nitrogen

    Decrease and stop growth of shoots,

    Excessive growth of the plant, increase in the number of roots and the whole plant, lack of basic mass. Leaf color - intensive -

    precise formation of green mass, suppressed -

    green. The increased growth of shoots, that

    for flowering and fruiting, decreases

    leads to a weakening of the resistance of the leaf, pale

    to disease, reduces its frost-resistant

    green leaf color, premature

    bone. Wateriness and fragility of

    tissues their fall

    stems and branches in herbaceous plants. Weakening of flowering and fruiting, pale fruit coloring, watery taste, weakening of aroma, decrease in storage capacity

    Phosphorus

    Deceleration of growth of vegetative organs,

    Premature ripening of fruits, both

    runs and the whole plant, reducing

    as phosphorus accelerates vegetation,

    , the appearance of

    on the appearance of a lack of potassium, iron

    of her red veins, suppressed color -

    and zinc. In some cases, as a result of

    , the flowers are devoid of color brilliance. Symptoms are similar to signs of a lack of nitrogen. Deterioration of fruit quality, fruits are pale, tasteless, with a weak aroma. With a complex deficit of phosphorus and potassium, a violet color appears on the petioles of the leaves and the lower part of the shoots. There are signs of an excess of nitrogen

    lack of iron can develop chlorosis

    Potassium

    Leaves acquire a bluish-green

    There are manifestations of lack of calcium

    color, edges and tips of the sheet plate

    , magnesium, manganese. The fruits, especially the

    , dry out, turn brown,

    swallow cultures, lose the ability to

    leaf plate often appears spotting. The plant becomes exposed to unfavorable weather conditions, loses its frost resistance, poorly tolerates a lack of moisture. Fruits ripen slowly, poorly colored

    storage, bitter rot rotates fruits

    Calcium

    Chlorosis, blanching and sometimes loss of

    There are manifestations of potassium deficiency,

    color of the leaf plate tissue, on the leaves of

    magnesium, zinc, manganese, boron.

    appears whitish chlorotic strips and

    cases of plant chlorosis, as with under-

    spots, the edges of the sheet plate are turning brown, opa-

    is the stack of this element. Significantly higher -

    gives foliage. Growth of shoots is suppressed, the growth tops wither and die. The growth of roots is inhibited, the roots develop poorly, little lateral rootlets and root suction hairs are created. Weakening of wood tissue and its exposure to frost, poor formation of a solid stone in peach and apricot trees. Depressed germination of seeds. Fruits lose their ability to store. Soil is gradually acidified

    pH indicator of acidity pH

    Magnesium

    Chlorosis, blanching and even yellowing

    There are manifestations of lack of

    of the plant foliage, leaf withering, premature fall of the leaves, apple leafs can provoke brown leaf spot. A typical sign of magnesium starvation is blanching of the tissue of the leaf plate between veins. Grinding of fruits, deterioration of their external and taste qualities, it is possible their premature shedding. Lack of magnesium is often caused by excess calcium in the soil

    calcium

    Sulfur

    Reducing and stopping growth of shoots, roots and the whole plant, insufficient formation of green mass, blanching of leaf tissue, reduction in leaf plate size, pale green color of leaves and premature fall. Symptoms similar to the signs of a lack of nitrogen

    No symptoms were noted

    All nutritious elements are necessary for the full development of the plant. Each of them has a certain effect on the growth of plants, plays a role in the metabolic process. And yet the most important thing is the presence of a balanced complex of all elements, as this ensures the assimilation by the plant of all components of the complex.

    Nitrogen refers to the most important nutrient macroelements, without it the plant can not exist. Nitrogen is part of the protein compounds that are the basis of life, as well as the composition of chlorophyll, with which plants use solar energy, absorb carbon dioxide and form carbohydrates, necessary for the construction of plant tissues. The presence of nitrogen is almost the main condition for plant growth, the formation of shoots and leaves. Plants get nitrogen from the soil, absorb it only in the form of ammonia or nitric acid and react very painfully to the lack of this element. However

    Nutrients and the main signs of their lack or excess in plants

    Name

    Disadvantage

    Excess

    Iron

    Blanching of plant leaf tissue, chlorosis

    There are manifestations of lack of foliage, especially on shoot tips, dying of shoots, suppressed growth of new shoots. Iron deficiency is often caused by excess calcium in the soil, as well as by the low acidity of the soil( pH> 7)

    of sphagnum and manganese

    Copper

    Deformation of shoots, shrinkage and twisting of their tips, death of shoots and depressed formation of new ones, chlorosis of leaves is noted, leaf discoloration, premature leaf drop

    No symptoms were noted

    Boron

    Yellowing of leaves, ugly deformity

    Aging leaves get brown

    of leaf plate, redness of the leaflok leaves, the appearance of necrotic spots on them. Deformation of the leaf plate, the leaves are small, become fibrous, leathery, the edges are twisted. Suppression of normal development of the kidneys, outwardly normal buds do not develop and later dry out, drying and dying off of vegetative tops. If there is a strong lack of boron, necrosis and death of shoots may follow. Fruit trees are observed in the provocation of various parts of the fruit and even premature fall-off

    color

    Zinc

    Grinding of leaves, dwarfism and deformity-

    There are manifestations of a lack of leaf plate, shortened interstices and, as a consequence, the emergence of rose-precision leaves, leaf chlorosiswith decolorization of leaf plate tissue, leaf drop, necrosis

    , death of leaves

    Molybdenum

    Chlorosis with blanching of the color of green leaf plate tissue, suppressesgrowth of leaves and young shoots, shrinkage of shoot tips, poor head formation, for example, in cauliflower, death of the vegetative core in broccoli

    Unusual staining of leaves

    Manganese

    Appearance of chlorotic spots on aging

    There are manifestations of lack of

    leaves, suppressed growth of new leaves,marked loss of foliage, as well as shrinkage and death of young shoots

    iron

    by changing its appearance, possible diseases and even plant death. There are a number of signs in the external appearance of the plant, indicating a lack or excess of one or another element. However, often there is a shortage of not one but several elements, and then the signs of their insufficiency are combined. So, for example, with the simultaneous lack of phosphorus and potassium , the plant does not show any characteristic signs of mineral starvation, but its growth is depressed, and often completely suppressed. With a strong deficit of these elements, a violet color appears on the petioles of the leaves and the lower part of the shoots. If phosphorus is deficient in combination with deficiency, the leaves become fibrous and stiff, acquire a light green color and grow at an acute angle relative to the shoot. As a result of such a complex deficiency of elements, plants often cease to bear fruit. With a shortage of three elements of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus , the plants develop poorly, their growth is suppressed, they bear fruit poorly, and there are few seeds in the fruit. Proceeding from what has been said, we can conclude that the decisive role for the full development of healthy plants is not even the absolute content of nutrients in the soil, but the ratio of the main elements of nutrition.

    Fertilizers:

    types and methods of application of

    Soil as plant rooting and nutrition medium must have all necessary substances for plant life and development. Only from the earth as a source and carrier of nutrients, plants draw strength for growth, flowering and full-bodied fruiting. Balance of nutrients in the soil

    Objective processes of weathering, washing of valuable elements in the lower layers of the earth under the influence of atmospheric precipitation and groundwater,

    and natural removal of nutrients by plants cause significant depletion of even fertile soils.

    is a complex of dynamic relationships between mobilization and binding processes,exchange of nutrients, fertilization and removal of their plants. Receiving nutrients from the soil, the plants gradually exhaust their stock, which, when intensive cultivation of crops is not replenished in a natural way. Therefore, in order to maintain nutrient levels in the soil that are sufficient for the life of plants and prevent its depletion, it is necessary to compensate for the natural processes of nutrient removal by plants and washing them into the lower soil layers by applying fertilizers, thus replenishing the stock of valuable elements that has been expended.

    Fertilizers play an important role in plant nutrition: they directly affect the diet, improve soil properties,

    facilitate the transfer of nutrients into plant-accessible forms. The most difficult question in the practice of fertilizer application is to determine where the line between the nutrient deficiency lies, when the plant is threatened with mineral starvation, and the excess of mineral elements entailing a dangerous over-saturation of soil and plants. The optimal dosing of fertilizers depends on the establishment of this boundary. The task of creating a balance of nutrients in the soil is very complex. To determine their optimal level, it is required to know the amount of nutrients and microelements contained in the soil, to take into account the soil structure, the level of its acidity, on which the degree of assimilation of individual substances by plants, the degree of soil moisture, the percentage of humus content, climatic conditions,

    in nutrients of different groups. In addition, during the growing season, the plant's need for certain nutrients varies depending on which plant organs grow in intensity over a given period of time. Leaf mass and young shoots require nitrogen, calcium and potassium, the root system - phosphorus and magnesium, flowers - nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, the changing needs of plants in food elements at different stages of development should also be taken into account when determining the rate of fertilization. To do this, it is advisable to carry out soil analysis to determine the level of nutrient content and then, in accordance with the needs of the crops to be cultivated, to introduce the missing elements in the form of fertilizers that are divided into organic, mineral and organomineral or complex in composition.