Mite bite: symptoms, prevention, consequences in humans
There are many kinds of ticks. Among them, the forest mite represents a particular danger in the spread of some infectious diseases: borreliosis, hemorrhagic fever and tick-borne encephalitis.
Ticks are located in places not higher than low shrubs. Favorable habitat conditions are wet, dark places of forests, parks. It is important to remember that not with every bite a person can become infected with dangerous diseases.
According to statistics, only a few of the tens of thousands of tick-bitten patients are ill. Unfortunately, there are no special signs on which it is possible to distinguish a tick from the pathogens of the disease.
It is possible to know about this only in laboratory conditions, as well as the clinical signs of the disease after a bite. Bacteria and viruses carry females, males, nymphs and larvae.
Symptoms of a tick bite in a person
The peak of the greatest activity of mites occurs from the beginning of April and decreases at the end of June. Their maximum number is fixed in May. In early July, many mites are dying out.
Insects are inactive, do not know how to fly and move fast. They wait for their prey( human or animal) sitting motionless on the grass, squat branches. The approximation of a person changes the behavior of a tick: it spreads its paws and tries to catch on.
The favorite warm, soft areas of the body are: axillary cavities, neck, shoulders, to which it slowly creeps.
The tick is clearly visible. In appearance, it resembles a birthmark. The paws of the tick are similar to the outgrowths of the hair. In the attached state, it can be a long time.
What should I do if I bite a tick?
The main purpose of all further manipulations with the tick is to extract it.
You should seek first aid from a specialist. If there is no possibility, then you should try to extract the insect yourself.
Removal of the is a painless procedure. To do this, it is necessary to gently rub it with fingers, wrapped in clean gauze, and then pull it counter-clockwise. You can not forcibly try to take it out using sharp, cutting objects. Otherwise, there is a risk of leaving the tick head in the skin.
In some sources it is recommended to grease mites with oil, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol or cream. After which time he must crawl himself. Another way involves the use of a thread, which captures an insect and is carefully drawn from the skin. Almost always as a result of such manipulations it is possible to extract the mite intact.
Further tactics after its removal are treatment of the wound with iodine solution and observation of the site of the bite. A normal reaction is the appearance of a small pink spot, which after a few days should disappear. Part of the tick, which could not be extracted in the coming days, should be evacuated outside.
At the end of the article, you can watch a video about how to properly remove a tick from the body of a person.
Possible consequences after a tick bite
Not all mites are contagious, and carry the threat of infection. In any case, the earlier the tick was removed - the less chance of catching any of these infections:
- 1) Tick-borne encephalitis is an infectious disease of a viral nature, the main symptoms of which are: intoxication, hyperthermia, central nervous system damage( encephalitis, meningitis).Consequences of the disease are persistent changes in the neurological nature, in some cases leading to disability and even death of the patient. The first signs are noted after 7 to 10 days. Specific prevention of the disease consists in the introduction of immunoglobulin in the first 3 days after the bite.
- 2) Borreliosis( Lyme disease) is an infectious disease of a bacterial nature that has a large polymorphism of clinical symptoms. In addition to general intoxication accompanied by fever, headache, fatigue, a typical symptom of the disease is a migrating rash. Bacteria affect various organs and systems( nervous, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular), especially with a genetic predisposition to damage. Lack of timely assistance and further treatment can lead to disability.
- 3) Hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is the virus. The main symptoms: intoxication with severe fever, changes in blood composition, as well as parenchymal and subcutaneous hemorrhages. There are Omsk, Crimean fevers. Etiotropic treatment consists in the appointment of antiviral drugs, as well as a solution of glucose, vitamins( K, P), strengthening the wall of blood vessels. With a timely appeal to a specialist, the prognosis of treatment is favorable.
Prevention: how to prevent a tick bite?
Observing simple recommendations you can protect yourself from an insect bite.
- 1) Ticks can not bite through clothes. They need an open skin area. That is why clothing is a reliable protection against ticks;
- 2) When heading into the forest, care should be taken to protect the exposed parts of the body, especially the skin of the legs. On top of the pants should wear socks, the sleeves of the jacket should fit snugly against the wrist. It is advisable to wear light-colored clothes. It is on her ticks more noticeable. Remedies deterrent ticks. They are recommended to be applied to places in which the tick can penetrate: collar, shirt sleeves, belt, socks, etc.;
- 3) It is important to regularly inspect the body parts after visiting the park, the forest. The tick moves slowly to the body surface it needs, so before a bite it can be found and removed;
- 4) If a tick is found on the body, it is necessary to consult an infectious disease specialist.
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