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  • Cyst: causes, symptoms, treatment, classification

    According to the definition, the cyst is the formation of a pathological nature in the form of a cavity, the distinguishing feature of which is the presence of a wall and liquid or semi-liquid contents.

    Such characteristics of this phenomenon as the size, the structure of the capsule, the specificity of the internal composition are directly dependent on the cause of the occurrence, duration of existence and placement of the bladder.

    Neoplasms can appear in different parts of the body. There are both single cysts and cases when they are found several. The latter option is called a cystoma, which is often benign and only in rare cases acquires a malignant character.

    There are true and false cysts. Classification depends on the presence or absence of epithelial lining. It is inherent only in true cysts.
    In addition, education data can be acquired and congenital.

    The latter include those that appeared at the time of incorrect formation of individual organs or tissues. In connection with the peculiarities of the onset, the following varieties of cyst neoplasms are distinguished:


    Parasitic


    Such cysts are shells covering the body of parasites. A similar situation often develops in a disease that causes larvae of the ribbon worm echinococcus.

    The course of the disease is accompanied by the formation of cysts, the most frequent location of which is the brain, heart, bile ducts, bones and spleen.

    Neoplasms for a long time can exist without declaring themselves, only reaching significant sizes, they begin to exert pressure on nearby tissues. In some cases parasitic cysts are suppressed with subsequent rupture and infection of the adjacent cavity.

    Dysontogenetic


    Cysts from this group are often congenital, formed on the site of expansion of cavities, cracks and canals left from the moment of embryonic development, or as a result of disorders in the formation of parenchymal organs. The dysontogenetic species is represented by branhyogenic, middle, parovarial, dermoid cysts, cystic formations in the kidneys, lungs, pancreas, liver.

    An example is a branhyogenic cyst that is located on the lateral areas of the neck and is formed from fragments of gill slits. Education on the anterior cervical part occurs because of a not overgrown thyroid-reed duct. Pathological formations in the kidneys and liver appear due to abnormal development of these organs.

    Tumor


    Appear if, due to a metabolic disorder and the formation of carcinogenesis, the tissues of a growing tumor begin to form separate cavities. This type of cyst is more characteristic of glandular organs.

    In case of tumor cysts, the patient is diagnosed with cystic ameloblastoma, cystic lymphangioma or other similar diseases.

    Ramolytic


    This type of cyst appears on the necrotic areas of individual organs. Necrosis can be caused by a heart attack, a hemorrhage, an inflammation. The wall of the cyst is formed from the tissue of the affected organ or connective. Damaged fragments begin to soften and dissolve over time.

    Cysts of this group are usually found in the spinal cord, brain, teeth, ovaries. They can accompany fibrotic osteitis, osteoblasts and other diseases.

    Traumatic


    Traumatic effect leads to the fact that the epithelial cover begins to penetrate into adjacent soft tissues with the subsequent appearance of a secret.

    The most common are traumatic formations on the fingers and palms. By a similar principle, pathological cavities appear in such areas as the liver, iris of the eye and pancreas.

    Retentional


    The peculiarity of these cysts is that the glands are the place of their formation. Neoplasm occurs in the case of a delay( retention) of the outflow of secret produced by them. The causes of stagnation can serve as stones, pressing tumors from outside and scars.

    Because of them in the ducts or lobes of the gland begins to accumulate matter. Retinatory cysts are dairy, salivary and prostate gland, ovaries.


    Where do cysts form?


    They are able to appear in virtually any part of the body, but there are places in which the frequency of their occurrence is greatest:

    Ovarian cyst


    It is a benign neoplasm located in the sex gland tissues. Externally, the ovarian cyst resembles a capsule filled with a secret. It can be dermoid, endometroids, mucous, follicular or a yellow body cyst. Some of these types of pathological cavities pass without external intervention, the rest require treatment, most often - surgical.

    Among the main causes of ovarian cysts called factors such as violations of folliculogenesis, changes in the balance of hormones, disruptions in the endocrine system, the early appearance of menstruation, abortion, hypothyroidism. This is a very common phenomenon, which is often diagnosed in patients of childbearing age, especially those of them who have an irregular menstrual cycle.

    The presence of an ovarian cyst usually does not affect the well-being of a woman, so it is diagnosed only during a prophylactic ultrasound examination. Sometimes there is a pulling or aching pain, which is felt from one side of the abdomen, which can provoke or intensify the sexual intercourse.

    If the integrity of the cyst has been compromised or other complications associated with it have occurred, the pain syndrome becomes more intense, the area of ​​its spread expands, nausea and vomiting appear. This situation is associated with dermoid and luteal cysts.

    Thyroid cyst


    This is a nodal formation with an internal cavity containing a liquid secret. The cyst in this gland is a common problem, most of all it affects women. The risk of new growth increases with age.

    The thyroid gland is composed of pseudotypes formed by follicles surrounded by a network of capillaries. If the removal of the contents from the follicle is violated and it begins to accumulate inside the cavity, this leads to an increase in the proportion and appearance of the cyst. The same result can lead to microcirculation, follicular dystrophy and hyperplasia.

    Functional capabilities of the gland do not suffer from the presence of the cyst. Essential effects on the human condition can complications associated with it, for example, inflammation or suppuration. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the cyst is benign.

    Breast cyst


    The disease is common among women of childbearing age. Cyst in this case is a manifestation of mastopathy. It looks like a round capsule with clear boundaries. The cyst of the breast can be benign and malignant in nature.

    Possible formation of fat cysts, which are the result of the sebaceous gland obstruction, as well as hematomas, which are the accumulation of blood in the tissue. These types of formations are always benign in nature. Harm to health causes their inflammation and a significant increase in size.

    To the appearance of the cyst leads a change in the hormonal background toward excessive production of estrogens, which in most cases is caused by diseases of the reproductive system, thyroid and stress. Additional factors contributing to the emergence of tumors are numerous pregnancies, breast surgeries, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives.

    Breast cysts can be multiple and single, two- and one-sided. Their sizes range from 1 mm to several centimeters.

    Kidney of the kidney


    It is a benign, rounded growth, bounded by a capsule of connective tissue with a yellowish transparent liquid. It is located in the upper or lower part of the kidney in the cortical or upper layer. The kidney cyst can be simple - single-chambered, or complex, divided into several segments. Education in most cases is of a benign nature.

    The causes of the appearance of cysts on the kidneys are not clear until the end. It is believed that they are acquired, arise after injuries, infection of the kidneys and urinary system. In 5% of cases, the origins of the problem lie in congenital anomalies and genetic predisposition.

    Uterine cyst


    An alternative name for education is a cyst or cyst cyst. This is a common phenomenon that often appears after the disappearance of pseudo-erosion.

    It is associated with an inflammatory process of a chronic nature, in which the outflowing ducts of glandular tissue of the uterus are blocked. The ducts are filled with a mucous secret, stretch and form pathological cavities. The cyst is a dense, whitish-colored formation. The size varies within a few millimeters. Uterine cysts are often multiple.

    Among the factors influencing the appearance of the cyst of the uterus, note the imbalance of the hormonal background and the endocrine system, inflammatory and catarrhal diseases, infections of the genitals, surgical interventions, abortions, early menstruation.


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