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  • Cramps in the legs: causes and treatment

    Quite unpleasant sensations, manifested as a result of muscle spasms, more often gastrocnemius, are familiar to almost everyone.

    For some - cramps in the legs( myoclonia or clonic spasms) are rare, in others, painful muscle spasms are regular. The manifestation of myoclonia is a consequence of functional disorders and is not an independent disease.

    In themselves, unexpected muscle contractions are not a concern. Anxiety is caused by causeless, quite a long time continuing, regular repetitions. Spasms in the leg muscles can manifest as an idiopathic( self-arising) symptom, or be a symptom of the underlying background disease.

    Why does my leg cramp?


    The mechanism and causes of the development of clonic seizures of the legs and calf muscles is identical for all ages and is manifested as a result of violations of the three components:

    • in violation of water-salt balance in muscle cells;
    • with inadequately low blood supply in soft tissues;
    • for neurological disorders.
    Each of these causes may manifest itself isolated or accompany, to various acquired or congenital diseases, in various variations.

    Electrolyte pathology is the most common condition leading to gastrocnemia and leg cramps. In the normal state, the reaction of the muscle tissue is possible in a certain phase of tension inside and extracellular ionic concentration, which creates a movement in the various directions of the movement of the current of the necessary microelements.

    Various pathological processes that lead to imbalance of the necessary elements, provoke violations of muscle contractions. The main problem is the lack of elements of the main subgroup - calcium and sodium compounds, leading to clonic muscle spasms.

    The most typical manifestations of seizures in the legs are:

    1. 1) Dehydration of the 2nd and 3rd degree, as a result of which prerequisites for blood thickening, decrease in the level of sodium compounds in the plasma, which contributes to the development of myoclonium. The same situation occurs with severe bleeding, with a sharply reduced total volume of blood in functioning vessels.
    2. 2) In case of inadequate diuretic therapy diuretics of Henle's loop and inhibitors that excrete valuable trace elements from the body - sodium and magnesium compounds. Reduced concentration of which causes an increase in stimulation of nerve impulses and creates prerequisites for convulsive reactions. This appearance of convulsive spasms is a common occurrence in slimming fashionistas with uncontrolled intake of diuretics and in elderly patients. Myoclonia manifests itself at night with a slight change in leg position by gastrocnemia or muscle twitching.
    3. 3) Inadequate water-electrolyte therapy - intravenous transfusions create sharp jumps in the volume of pressure in the capillaries, which creates an electrolyte disorder that leads to convulsive manifestations.
    4. 4) The condition of pregnancy - the lack of trace elements of calcium is due to the expenditure on intrauterine development of the child and entails clonic spasms of the ankle.
    5. 5) Progression of liver disease( cirrhosis) - a change in the level of protein in the blood plasma( hypoalbuminemia) causes a water edema in the tissues of the pericardial sac, in the tissues of the pleura and peritoneum, which also contributes to the formation of caviar cramps.
    6. 6) As a result of hemodialysis - oxygen starvation of the kidneys contributes to the deposition of toxins and toxins, resulting in excessive formation and accumulation of lactanic acid.and serotonin - the neurotransmitter


    Insufficient blood circulation of soft tissues


    In addition, cramps in the legs are due to the following pathologies due to which there is a violation of blood circulation, and as a result, the occurrence of seizures.

    1. 1) Complete or partial disturbance of blood supply in tissues causes spasmodic pains and convulsive muscle contractions. Such a pathology, with insufficient blood supply, is manifested by the development of myoclonia in the ankle muscles as a result of metabolic processes disturbance and restriction of dextrose distribution in tissue cells.
    2. 2) With varicose veins on the legs, myoclonus manifestations can manifest as convulsive reactions in the anchor muscles, especially after long walks. Characteristic of their manifestation among people who, due to their professional activities, are forced to stand for a long time. Including in pregnant women who are helped by intra-abdominal pressure with varicose enlargement.
    3. 3) Low blood sugar levels caused by starvation or hypoglycemic conditions in diabetes cause gastrocnemius spasms due to blood flow disorders in the limbs caused by a violation of tissue metabolism.
    4. 4) Pathological changes of the foot in the form of transverse flatfoot - the cause of spasm of muscle tissue lies in the incorrect distribution of the load on the legs, the deterioration of the blood supply and squeezing of the vascular-neural bundles. It appears, as a rule, when wearing narrow shoes or shoes with high heels.
    5. 5) Reynaud diseases - characteristic disorders in the capillary blood flow cause pathology of protective reflexes and decrease in muscle tone, the result is myoclonia. With such a pathology, the limbs react sharply to the manifestation of cold air and water by clonic spasms.

    Causes of seizures as a result of neurological disorders


    Seizures in the legs may also occur due to neurologic disorders.

    1. 1) Presynaptic disorders caused by various kinds of intoxications, infections, bites of some insects. An overdose of a vitamin D preparation causes children to have a sharp spasmodic muscle contraction.
    2. 2) Acute disorders of cerebral vessels also cause muscle cramps in the legs. It is accompanied by continuous, pulsating headaches, creeps, flickering in the eyes, blurred consciousness.
    3. 3) Pediatric hyperthermia in many cases does not exclude convulsive manifestations in the foot caviar.
    4. 4) Frequent manifestations of clonic seizures in pathologies in articular cartilage are a result of compression of nerve motor fibers with intervertebral hernias of the disc.

    Causes of leg cramps at night


    During night sleep, muscle activity is significantly reduced, but sleep in a hot room contributes to the accumulation of lactic acid in the caviar tissues, which contributes to the manifestation of painful clonic seizures.

    Involuntary muscle contraction can provoke greater stress on the legs the day before, especially people who experience vascular problems, when there is chronic venous insufficiency, and the violation of arterial blood flow causes tissue hypoxia and contributes to spastic manifestations.

    Causes of leg cramps in a healthy person


    An absolutely healthy person can be prone to clonic cramps in the legs.

    Seizures occur for various reasons:

    • with prolonged, severe muscle strains;
    • as a result of prolonged forced position of the body;
    • due to household and professional loads;
    • when training in the cold.
    To spastic convulsions in the legs should not be treated lightly, but in all seriousness. Because cramps are the most common cause of death when resting on the water. When swimming, there is a significant muscular load on the calves of the legs. An additional provocative factor is cold water. And not trained muscles are most often prone to spasms. The pain syndrome and panic fear aggravate the situation.

    What should I do when my legs cramp?


    The first thing to do when your legs cramps up is to drop the panic and focus.

    Inhale as much air as possible, dive, bend your knees and pull them to your chest. Strongly grasp your hands( in turn), toes, pull, and as close as possible to pull them to the shin, thereby producing an unlocking of the "clamped" gastrocnemius muscles.

    In this case, the foot serves as a lever, stretching the muscle tissue, and returning it to its normal state.

    Treating leg cramps


    Frequent repetition of seizures in the legs, as well as for their effective treatment, requires a medical examination for differentiation:

    • electrolyte imbalance;
    • exceptions of endocrine pathologies;
    • the presence of vascular disorders.
    In the usual, classic form of myoclonias in the absence of syncope and the appearance of seizures in the legs, expressed by convulsive seizures, it is necessary to monitor fluid intake. Replacing it in hot weather with mineral waters.

    The loss of fluid during vomiting and diarrhea is compensated by the use of Regidron, Hydrovita or similar preparations. Exclude uncontrolled use of medicines and diuretics.

    Women of "an interesting situation", for preventive purposes, replenish the calcium reserve, selected by the doctor preparations. As a short-term help for spasmodic spasms in the legs are used rather simple methods:

    • stretching of the ankle muscles by walking on tiptoe;
    • extend the arms of the foot in the supine position;
    • pulling up on himself big toes;
    • hot compresses on calves;
    • relaxation of muscles with a light massage;
    • is the most effective method - shaking your leg with careful kneading and stroking.
    As a drug for cramps in the legs, magnesium preparations and muscle relaxants are prescribed. To choose a drug taking into account individual features the doctor will help.


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