• Union of tops and roots

    Having a stock and a graft, it is possible to begin to design a seedling. But beforehand it is still necessary to purchase and prepare a tool, specific materials, including binding, - after all, no matter how the components of the vaccination are combined, a careful binding of the joint site of the rootstock and graft is necessary, which ensures a strong contact of the surfaces of the sections and their better adhesion and prevents them from drying out, soaking up, dust and other unfavorable factors. Long since in Russia( and not only), the main and almost the only material for this was a lime bast.

    The technology of obtaining the broom is not advanced. At first, young limes with smaller number of branches on the trunk were chosen, chopped them during sap flow and immediately removed the bark from them. In special mochils this cortex was kept for 70-90 days, then bast fibers( bast) were separated from the bark, dried. The work is labor-intensive, and, most importantly, the lime tree was cut down, which the people called the queen of the honey-combs for its high honey-bearing qualities. Only one blooming linden can produce up to 14-16 kilograms of valuable honey. To obtain 100 tons of bast, it is necessary to cut 30-35 thousand linden trees, and 500-600 tons of baits were required for nurseries every year!

    By the way, as the bandage material was not completely wet, in particular because of poor elasticity, and used it only where the lime grows. In other places, cotton ribbons, threads, raffia( sea grass) and similar material were used, which cost more, and had the same drawbacks. For a long time there was nothing to replace the old grandfather method of tying.

    In 1945-1946 in our country were brought from the US samples of narrow short rubber bands, which were used there for vaccinations. But for their production, natural rubber was required, and it was not enough for more important facilities for the restoration of the national economy in the postwar years.

    Many scientists and practitioners, including the honored agronomist of the RSFSR Vladimir Efimov, set out to find a new strapping material from chemical polymers, the release of which

    established in the early 50's. For 6 years he persistently and meticulously tested various films: polyamide( perfor), nylon, fluoroplastic-4 and others, but they were far from perfect. Once in the hands of a scientist, an elastic oilcloth was bought, bought in a pharmacy. Narrow strips, cut from it, turned out to be an excellent bandage material. It was polychlorvinyl film, which literally made a coup in gardening and has been used successfully to this day. It easily stretches to 30-40 percent of its original length, due to which it tightens the bark well, tightly pressing the flap to it, and does not cut as a bast as the bunch thickens, thereby eliminating the need for re-tying. Soft soft strips do not cut the hands of obvjazchits, tied easier "and much faster. The film does not pass neither air nor water, preserving the vitality of the eyes. Its application made it possible to significantly reduce the cost of grafting and inoculation, to increase the yield of seedlings to 30 percent, which in the country's scale amounted to millions of apple, cherry, plum and other fruit crops grown by grafting.

    Only time did not allow Vladimir Fedorovich Yefimov to defend the already prepared Ph. D. thesis, he is an example of a harmonious combination of the theorist and practice of nursery among the senior and middle-generation of gardeners of the country. His working life began at thirteen years;I really wanted to study, but there was no money for this in a large family. It was only possible to enter the school of practical gardening and truck farming near St. Petersburg. The students here not only acquired knowledge, but also earned a living. The desire for knowledge led to rabfak, and then to the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. In the prewar years and after the war, I paid much attention to the organization of domestic gardening, I studied myself, I trained nursery specialists. Created a collection garden of 880 varieties. Developed new agro practices for nurseries of the Non-chernozem zone, allowing several times to increase the number and quality of seedlings. He was awarded with gold and silver medals of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition. But the main reward for self-sacrificing work is Russian gardens from seedlings grown by Vladimir Fedorovich Efimov and his disciples.

    For many years of the history of domestic and foreign gardening, a large number of ways of grafting the scion on the stock has been developed. The basic and up to the present time remains summer grafting. The most important condition for its successful conduct is intensive sap flow, good separation of the bark from the wood, high activity of the cambium of the stock, sufficient maturation of the wax tissues.

    Planted in spring, well-groomed, well-developed( diameter of the stem at the base of 7-12 millimeters), the stock is watered well in advance. This contributes to the improvement of sap movement and separation of the stock of the rootstock. It is better to perform work in the early morning and evening hours in overcast weather. Immediately before budding, the stem of the rootstock is wiped with a damp rag to remove stuck soil. The technology of incubation consists of the following 32

    processes. Pick the stalk of the scion( it is desirable that in diameter it does not exceed the stock), cut a well-developed kidney with a shield. At an altitude of 5-8 centimeters on the stock, usually on the north side, an incision is made in the form of a letter T with a rounded upper part and the cortex is slightly expanded. In the formed slit, insert the scabbard with the kidney, gently squeeze the root of the rootstock around it and tie it with a film. In recent years, the advantage of ocularization has been proved by the method of application.

    After 12-14 days for apple and pear, 20-25 days for stone stones are tested for survival, the bandage is weakened, and at the end of vegetation it is generally removed.

    With the method described in the method, for example, cherries often failed, although at first it seemed that the graft had taken root. The reason for the low yield of cherry seedlings is now in the far 50s;Efimiya Petrovna Kuzheleva, candidate of agricultural sciences, took up the job. Together with her students, she theoretically substantiated and confirmed in practice the need for early cherry budding until the nights were still fatal. It is she from a variety of Chinese whales selected forms with high compatibility and easily propagated by green cuttings. His agronomic scientific activity EP Kuzhelev began still under the leadership of the most prominent Soviet scientist, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Petr Genrikhovich Min. Throughout her life, Efimiya Petrovna is an example of selfless service to domestic gardening.

    For apple trees in summer, they try to choose a stalk with well-ripened buds. So did the stone fruit, and as it turned out, in vain. The buds on the shoots of cherries and apple trees behave differently: they remain growthy in the apple tree, and the buds in the bulk of these buds form the beginnings of the future flowers. The closer to autumn, the more such kidneys on the shoot. Taken as an eye for ocularization, they take root, but escape, they do not grow out of them. The way out was found: to spend budding in spring with kidneys taken from growing shoots, where the kidneys have not yet begun differentiation, or to use mostly apical buds that remain growth. It would seem that everything is simple. Not really. The fact is that after two weeks, while the bud of the scion persisted, it is necessary to weaken the bandage, after another five days, remove it altogether, and after 7-10 days the entire upper part of the stock, that over the grafted kidney, is cut to the kidney. Usually at this time the buds begin to germinate. Of these, shoots of up to 70 centimeters in length grow in the same year, and they manage to prepare well for the winter.

    In the sovkhoz nurseries, a spring inoculation with a cuttings is necessary. In amateur gardens, this technique is used much more often than ocularization.

    The graft is used not only to obtain a seedling of a cultivar variety, but also to replace an unsuccessful variety, to create a tree-garden, to repair tree defects, to repair damaged plants( frosts or rodents), etc. There are a lot of methods for grafting a cuttings.

    Fig. Enclosure:

    Fig. Lining:

    I - preparation of the cuttings for budding( a - cut from the tree shoots, b -

    after removing the leaves);

    I!- a cut of the kidney with a scute from the cuttings;

    III - combination of components and binding

    Fig. Aspiration for

    Fig. Aspiration for

    It is not difficult to learn how to vaccinate and without anyone's advice on available visual aids. But the learning process will go faster and safer( because you have to work very sharp knife), if you go to work in the nearest fruit nursery or go to the camp of work and leisure with specialized fruit-breeding sovkhozes. Here you can get a specialty, and help the farms, and have a rest, and earn some money, not superfluous in the family or personal budget.

    Improved copulation is the most common way of grafting rootstocks and thin shoots. The diameters of the scion and rootstock should be practically identical. The rootstock( seedling or clonal) is cut at a height of 2-10 centimeters from the soil level and cut on it, as shown in the figure. The same cut is made at the lower end of the scion of the scion, the three kidneys are counted up and cut off with?the rest of the escape. Sections for the root and privoem should be a mirror image of each other. Components of the graft are combined and tying. The upper section of the scion is covered with a thin layer of garden gauze.

    Copulation with a tongue or without a tongue. If the graft and the rootstock do not coincide in diameter( less than the graft), then use the graft to the application. The upper part of the stock is cut at the same height as in the previous case, placing the knife at an angle of 60 °, that is, the cut must be chamfered. Then, a cut is made on the top of the tree, the width of which corresponds to the diameter of the scion of the scion, and the splitting. The lower end of the cut is cut so that the surface of the cut in shape and size is mirrored in the cut to the rootstock. The components are combined and tied so that the upper cut of the rootstock is also closed. To subsequently not cut off the stalk, immediately put a peg to garter the cuttings to him, and then develop from his kidneys escape.

    Saddle copulking - very similar to copulating in the butt, only on the lower cut of the cut is a capillary, with which the shank hangs on the rootstock.

    Inoculation in the lateral incision is applied in the nursery on overgrown rootstocks. Perform it in the spring, using as a scion last year's growth of the cultivar. At the base at an altitude of 15-20 centimeters from the base, the entire aboveground part is cut. On the remaining stem at an altitude of 5-8 centimeters make an oblique incision, and on the lower part of the cuttings of the scion, a cut in the form of a double-sided wedge, similar in size to the cut made on the stock. The graft is gently inserted into the incision in the rootstock so that the matching tissues coincide. The components are tied. In order not to break the developing escape, it is tied to a hemp, which is cut out in a year.

    Let's consider two more methods, especially widely used in recent years: green and winter vaccinations. For the development of these techniques, a large team of scientists was awarded medals VDNH.The principal difference between the winter vaccination is that it is carried out under stationary conditions during the off-season, that is, when workers do not have the

    Fig. Copulking improved Fig. Copulation with


    Fig. Copulking improved Fig. Copulation with


    Fig. Copulation Fig-8- Grafting into the side incision

    with the

    saddle is occupied in the field. There is the possibility of mechanization of the technological process. But at the same time this method requires capital expenditures for various structures, materials and equipment. The maximum effect from reception is obtained when the complete cycle is executed. Here is a short summary of the whole technological process of obtaining seedlings with the help of winter grafting. Prepared seed or vegetatively propagated stock and cuttings of scions. They are stored in cold rooms so that they can be used at any time, for example, in January-March. In a bright warm room at convenient workplaces, workers are vaccinated.

    A sharply sharpened grafting knife becomes an oblique cut into a rootstock. It should be at least 1.5-2 centimeters long and have a perfectly flat surface. The same section is carried out and on privo. On prievo and the bottom, do slashes-tongues, which are necessary for tight binding of components. The junction of the sections of the components is tightly bound. Now the vaccinations must be placed in certain conditions, so that the fusion begins.

    Both the scion and the rootstock under the bark have layers of very active tissue - cambium. Under certain conditions, injured cambium cells begin to quickly divide, forming a loose white tissue - callus. It fills all the free space between the vaccine components. The callus of the stock is more active. But a large number of callus cells also form on the privo. In the beginning, they do not connect tightly with each other, because there is an insulating layer between them. After a while in the insulating layer, lumens, so-called "breakout windows" are formed, through which nutrients can flow from one component to another. A vascular system is formed between the stock and the graft, and the insulating layer gradually dissolves. This is the process of fusion of grafted components for any method of grafting. But in stationary conditions it becomes possible to control it.

    It is interesting that the speed of this process can be affected by many factors: the timing of the vaccination, the ambient temperature. The most intensive process takes place in March, when at 25 C the callus is formed in 7 days. Once the callus was formed, the vaccine was ready for planting. But the fields are sheltered by snowdrifts, because spring only rocked. Keep vaccinations in the heat, too, can not - "sprout."Therefore, they are put in refrigerators, pre-wrapped in plastic wrap and packed in containers, and in April-May planted in the field. With proper care - abundant watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds, feeding - grows a good one-year, suitable for transplanting into the garden. But it often happens that planted in the field of winter vaccinations fall into conditions of lack of moisture. The weak root system does not have time to develop and poorly provides the above-ground part with water and nutrition. Started growing shoots quickly stop it,

    barely reaching 20-30 centimeters in height. To get them out of this state is very difficult, even if you start to water abundantly. In particular, the Antonovka variety differs in this way. Other varieties, for example Melba, when sprinkling shoots are renewed, but, as a rule, the growth in the winter freezes.

    So it turned out that the progressive application seems to be not always found in practical life. But garden scientists decided: after the components of the vaccination are grown together, plant these plants in greenhouses immediately - directly into the soil or in packets filled with substrate( peat + sand) 30 centimeters high and 20 centimeters wide of polyethylene film. In the bottom of the packages, in the corners, there must be holes, and the soil should be covered with soil so that only the upper bud of the scion remains on the surface. Packages with plants are set tightly to each other, placing them so that it is convenient to observe and care. The most important element of care is watering. In the moist substrate, roots are formed. At the same time, the kidneys begin to bud open. Weak tender primary roots with difficulty provide nourishing substances with developing shoots. Therefore, watering is often done in small portions. This will not only protect the vaccines from desiccation, but also prevent overmoistening.

    After every watering, it is very useful to loosen the soil. If all these operations are carried out in a timely manner, the growth of a cultural escape will very quickly begin. So, it's time to think about feeding. Of the basic nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - to rooting plants, in the beginning, nitrogen is harmful, it inhibits the development of rootlets. At the same time they really need potassium. Phosphorus also contributes to the development of the root system. Therefore, the feeding should be phosphoric-potash( 20 grams of each element per 10 liters of water).

    Once the shoot reaches a length of 10 centimeters, it is necessary to start fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers, which contribute to a better shoot growth.

    Not all forms of nitrogen fertilizers are good for fruit plants in the greenhouse. Thus, the ammonia form( NH4NO3 can inhibit the growth of apple one-year apple.) Carbamide( urea) can be used in a dissolved form( concentration 0.2 percent) not only for irrigation, but also for foliar top dressing

    It is best to use potassium nitrate( KN03) which simultaneously contains the two most necessary elements

    For the conditions of the protected ground, the industry produces fertilizers of solution and crystalline, containing not only macro( NPK), but also microelements necessary for the plant.fertilizer "Rodnichok."

    With proper care by the middle of June, it is possible to obtain plants ready for planting directly into the garden. To this time, 38

    naturally creates a favorable temperature regime, and it is important only to provide the plants with moisture. Transplanted without damaging the root system, plants become well established.

    The grafting on the stock directly of the cuttings or the scutellum with the bud of the propagated variety is the classic way of obtaining the seedlings of this variety. After the components have grown together and the development of the escape of the grafted variety begins, at one stage or another the crown of the rootstock is removed and the crown of the new plant is formed. We have to use a lot of tricks to make the future crown strong, all the branches are properly oriented and completely occupied the space allocated to them. At this stage, the height of the stem is determined, on which it depends whether the garden from these seedlings is suitable for soil cultivation or if surgical methods are to be applied, causing serious injuries to adult trees. It is very important so to behave towards newly created plants, so that they begin to bear fruit as early as possible, that is, to use the knife and secateur as little as possible. At the same time, some problems of the winter hardiness of the future tree are being solved.

    Approaches to this problem are very diverse. In our country, doctors VI Budagovskii, SN Stepanov, candidate of agricultural sciences SB Shlyapnikov and others went on the way of creating multicomponent trees in the nursery( they are also called multi-storey trees in everyday life).

    Remember, speaking of vegetatively propagated rootstocks, along with their excellent qualities, they noted far from high winter hardiness and insufficiently developed root system? At that time, the root system is reliable in the seed rootstocks, but the trees are also obtained with a mighty crown. Many outstanding varieties do not have high winter hardiness of boles, skeletal branches, fruit formations. At the same time, varieties with average indices for yield, large fruit, taste and technological properties of fruits are known, but with very high winter hardiness of the tree itself. So they thought, but do not collect, as from the cubes, a tree that would consist of individual parts taken from trees with better indicators. For example, to take the root system of a high-seed seed stock, but to suppress the growth force by inserting a dwarf, to form a stem from the tissues of the stamper, skeletal branches from the skeleton-forming tissues and, on this basis, to create the crown of the grown-up variety.

    At first glance, the operation seems rather simple, especially for someone who is proficient in the technique of grafting and grafting. However, there are some subtleties here. First, what can serve today as the best insertion component - a bearer of weak growth? SB Shlyapnikov believes that for this purpose M9 is most suitable, Budagovsky's paradise and No. 57-491.According to him, the dwarf rootstock K "62-396 is not very desirable as an insert

    Secondly, how long should the insert be? According to AS Budavovski's

    , and this is confirmed by other scientists, for varieties with a naturally small crown, an insert is sufficientlength 8-10 centimeters, with a medium-developed crown - 12-15, for varieties with a usually powerful crown - 18-20 centimeters. It is generally recognized the regularity: the longer the intercalary component of the dwarfish rootstock, the more weakly the tree turns out. To create a supercarlic tree, take a stalkfor inserting lengthsth 30-40 centimeters. The graft is planted on a seed stock at an altitude of 5-10 centimeters

    The seed beetle is also grafted with an eyelet taken from a dwarfish rootstock, which is used as an insert.

    In both cases, the grown one-height 15-20 centimeters from the place of the first inoculation graft the stamping machine. As such can serve as a stalk or eye of varieties Sharopai, Petrova Petrova, Antonovka vulgaris, Grushovka Moscow, as well as Gorno-Altayskoye, Dobryka.

    Use a technique such as a winter( and green) vaccination. To save time in 1-2 years apply a double inoculation cuttings: on the seed stock, graft the stem of the clonal insert, and then the stem of the stamping and skeletal agent. For 2-3 years after planting on a permanent place, young trees are re-invoked with the right sorts.

    Along with the search for hardy-hardened stamping and skeletons, Stanislav Shlyapnikov devoted a significant part of his creative life to practicing the technology of fruit tree re-vaccination. It is important to catch all the subtleties in the reaction of plants to such a sharp surgical intervention as is the vaccination and re-vaccination. The most important is the compatibility of the components. Even with simple grafting of the variety on the stock, this problem is one of the most significant. And with respect to multicomponent trees, it is complicated many times: compatibility of the seed stock with the insert, insertion with the stamping agent, the latter with the cultivar is necessary. And such quartets for the gardens of the Non-Black Earth Region were selected by Stanislav Borisovich. He also identified a very important feature in the selection of varieties of scions and that part of the prefabricated tree, which serves as a stock, - the correspondence of the rhythms of growth. One can only guess how many trees to be operated on to determine which branches, what diameter, at what height are most suitable for such a procedure. And how many lost vaccinations have already been lost before paying attention to the relationship between the size of the cuttings and the sailing of the leaves on the developing shoots. It was necessary to test more than two dozen ways of vaccination and choose from them the best, ensuring the greatest success and also less labor-intensive. The latter is very important: after all, they work on re-vaccination early in the spring, not in the warmest weather, work requires perseverance, patience, skill of the craftsman, an exact look, a firm but kind hand, considerable mental and physical strength.

    Finally, the day has come when you came to the nursery to look at your warders farewell. Here they are in front of you - slender or scraped, tall or short, with a reliable foundation for the future crown or just something with one or two inferior branches, each on his own face and with his character. And whatever they are, you are glad to everyone, because all of them are the result of your

    of your thoughts, knowledge, skill, diligence, mental anxiety. And you thought about their future destiny. These will be connected to 5-10 pieces in bundles and loaded into the body of a farm truck. Immediately make a note in your mind - remind you to spread a wet straw and cover it with a tarpaulin on top, and immediately after you have dug it - sprinkled the roots with moist soil, sawdust, peat, if it's clean, and not already flavored with strong organic and mineraladditives that can burn roots and bark of boles. It is best if the new owner before planting the seedlings in the garden dug them under some canopy or in a barn - the air is cooler there, more saturated with moisture and there is no wind, and, therefore, there will be no drying of the fabric.

    And for these, frankly rather weak and not very attractive, you are nonetheless calm, because you see with what care they are packed on a long journey. First, each carefully picked up the branches, pulled them to the conductor and carefully tied with twine. Then all the acquired seedlings were tied together so that the roots were on the same level, and they dipped roots into the "clay chat".Then they spread a piece of sackcloth, under it - a piece of smaller film and a little bit of damp straw, moss. Put the seedlings on the roots of this litter and wrapped first in sacking, and then in a film, but so that the roots had air access. In this cocoon, the seedlings will last for 5-7 days. But how much manual labor!

    And maybe when you become a scientist-agronomist, you will be engaged in a nursery, with the seedlings will act differently: on the conveyor it will fall into a tapering pipe with a polyethylene sleeve embedded in it. A minute. .. and a crooked seedling crawls out of the pipe: roots in a polyethylene opaque package with a liner from a moistened sponge, and a crown in a grid. Or the upper edge of the package will fit snugly against the root collar of the seedlings and somewhat more freely to its stem, and inside the package the conditions of aeropony will be created, when the atmosphere around the roots is saturated with moisture, the droplets of fog will contain elements of nutrition, substances that accelerate the healing of wounds and stimulate growthroot hairs. And what is most interesting, when planting a seedling, the package will not have to be removed, since during 2-5 weeks in the soil it breaks down, in moist soil faster, in dry soil - more slowly. Therefore, it is not terrible, if there is no possibility to water immediately after planting - the roots grow in a humid atmosphere in the package. The

    film on the stem and the mesh on the crown will protect the

    tree trunk

    and the rod from the rodents. Over the winter, under the influence of

    temperature difference and the sun's rays mesh is destroyed, freeing the crown from the put. And further. To plant a "swaddled" seedling it is much easier to create a planting machine. Practically from the excavation of the seedlings in the nursery, you can do without laborers before planting it in the garden, only you need only that one of you is seriously carried away by this idea and brought it to realization.

    But the procedure for the production of planting material can look quite different than what you and I saw on the previous pages. Much of the new technology has already been studied and in countries with high-quality gardening finds practical application, but not less yet to be investigated and brought to the production level.

    Probably, you heard about the culture of isolated tissues and organs? In broad terms, this method has been used in agriculture for many years to obtain virus-free clones, for example potatoes, carnations, chrysanthemums, strawberries, cherries, raspberries. In many cultures - this is already a standard, mandatory technological element. You can not do without it in the nursery of fruit plants. And here for you, an unlimited field of activity regarding the development of both methodologies, programs, and technical means of their execution.

    What is the essence of the new approach to the problem? The first is that everything happens not in the field, but in the laboratory, in terms of equipment and conditions close to the medical institution of microsurgery. In the procedure, not soil, not whole plants, not gross tools of labor and not employees physically and morally suppressed by the imperfection of the labor process participate in the procedure. Instead of soil - artificial nutrient media in sterile containers. Instead of the pruner, the ocularyngeal knife is a surgical instrument, including, for example, an improved eye scalpel. All intermediate, preparatory work is carried out by robots, and the specialist gardener-operator performs what is beyond the power of any automation, what only a highly skilled master and his intellect can do.

    And what happens in this lab is as follows.

    Pre-selection with the help of its tools, techniques, plant-donors on the basis of computer processing derive a variety with given parameters, and prone to root formation and therefore not need a rootstock. For those regions, where necessary, the new variety is resistant to stress by the root system, the stem, the skeletal branches. This means that it does not require stamping and skeletons. The variety has the size and shape of the crown determined by the breeding program. It can be in the form of a column, a palmette, a ball, etc. Therefore, intercalary( intermediate) inserts determining the degree of dwarfism of the plant are not required.

    Having received such material for reproduction, the scientist-gardener-operative introduces in the program of the computer requirements to the nutrient medium, caused by specificity of a plant material. According to the received task, the robots prepare the necessary composition and quality of the medium and the corresponding containers for it, in which the sowing is subsequently carried out.(For fruit crops, until recently, the Murashige-Skuga recipe with specific physiologically active directional additives was used most often.) At different stages of cultivation of isolated tissues, additives are selected so as to stimulate, for example, intensive division of cells of future stems( cytokinins).Others( auxins) will be required during the rooting stage. Of course, everything related to the preparation of the nutrient medium is carried out at the level of high sterility and purity of the initial preparations.

    When the medium is ready, the horticultural operator has to work with responsibility: to separate a group of meristematic cells under a microscope, guaranteed to be free of viruses and capable of regenerating the corresponding tissues and a whole micro-plant;to carry out their sterilization and seeding on a nutrient medium.

    It is very important that the plant from which the explant is taken is at this time in optimal phenophase( this may be the moment of completion of organic rest, the beginning of active growth, i.e., when meristematic cells are predisposed to active fission).

    All work is performed in conditions of exceptional sterility of the instrument, equipment, air space of the room.

    Unfortunately, in a few days it often turns out that the crop is infected with saprophyte microflora and it has to be discarded. To prevent this from happening, there is a versatile search for sterilizing agents, seeding techniques.

    Bulbs with explants placed in them on media are transferred to light rooms with strictly regulated mode of lighting and air temperature. The speed of the conveyor, on which the flasks are placed, is calculated so that by the time of the next procedure the flask is ready for it with a micro-plant with roots, stem, leaves, kidneys. To obtain such plants, explants have to be transplanted several times to new nutrient media, changing physiologically active substances and concentrations of solutions of salts and various additives.

    Finished micro-plants are now planted in pots or boxes with a nutrient autoclave( heated in an autoclave or otherwise) substrate. But, despite various precautions, including careful washing of plants from an artificial environment, treatment with potassium permanganate, operators often fail because of the destruction of the object by fungal infection.

    You can increase the percentage of successful transplants using( after decontamination) materials such as perlite, vermiculite, possibly expanded clay in pure form and mixed with sand. Very large potentials in this respect can be discovered in the zeolite. There is evidence that it suppresses the development of many microorganisms harmful to crops. In addition, it has the property of regulating the plant nutrition regime.

    For transplanted microplants, they are looked after, grown to standard sizes and then used in the usual way.

    But. .. Undoubtedly, you have often feasted on sweets - a dragon "Raisins in chocolate"?Such "candies" are prepared and used in vegetable growing, only raisins are seeds, and chocolate - a special substrate from the nutritional mixture. With such seed material, which has fallen into the soil, the membrane softens, the germinated seed appears in the zone enriched with nutrients, and quickly moves into growth.

    Probably, it is technically not difficult to carry out coatings of whole microplants from meristem culture. Even better, they would feel, and it would be easier to do if they were one by one enclosed in microcapsules, similar to those in which medicinal tablets are placed. It seems that if this procedure is performed with plants that have undergone decay, the tissues have matured and they have entered into organic rest, then they can be stored as planting material for a fairly long time under certain conditions, of course.

    The composition of the capsule shell, the technology of enclosing micro-plants in it, the storage regimes and much more are still to be studied, and you, as the cards say, hand in hand. Complicated. And it will take a lot of time. But imagine a picture of planting a garden: the state farm( the farmer or someone else) has calculated the scheme of planting, determined how many seedlings are required, went into the store, bought 2-3 bags of capsules, poured them into the seeder, brought it to the best time for sowing in the field, and then. .. it all depends on the speed of the machine. Of course, plants are small and weak for field conditions. Therefore, the seed drill is not quite simple. There are milling rippers on it, which bring the soil to the required condition before sowing, and after sowing the capsules, the soil band, where they fell, is covered with a film. The width of the film is 15-20 cm. It is well retained on the soil by special staples, similar to those made with school notebooks, only of a larger size.

    Runs on the field unit: the soil is friable with narrow strips, the seedlings are sown, the film spreads on top and stitches it to the ground. Planted seedlings, shoots in the film rested, and it stretches. Grow under it, as in a greenhouse, light and moisture is enough. Shoots grew by 30-40 cm, became closely under the film, and by this time under the influence of the sun strength and elasticity had already lost its strength. The shoots podnatuzhilis once and went to freedom. The film is opal, torn, but for some time as a mulch material protects the soil from withers, weeds. Yes, the seedlings are ready to stand up for themselves.

    A fairy tale? No, already two thirds now. Is not the last third of the way going to help?