• Forming the microclimate of the garden


    consequences of errors in crop allocation

    Compensation methods


    Lack of light

    Consider plant requirements for steppe-

    The leaves brighten, acquire unexplained

    or illumination, make sure that

    stain, sometimes lose

    growing plants nearby

    coloring is not obscured, the process is slowed down



    of the plant, all parts are melted,

    stems are stretched and become brittle, the aroma of the plant is reduced

    Excess sunlight

    Take into account the requirements of the plant for the steppe

    The leaves acquire a brown tint, the edges of the

    do not have any light, choose the suitable

    of the leaf plate, and

    species of plants are thrown out; if necessary, the

    is curled, the leaves dry out and the litter-

    provide shading

    gt;In the shade-loving and shade-tolerant


    plants, the overabundance of direct sun-

    rays leads to the emergence of


    Air temperature

    Excessively low or high

    To pick up a place for the plant, corresponding to its requirementsto the temperature and

    formation and cracking of the

    sheet, select for the low-

    plate, yellowing of the leaves. The emergence of

    temperature zones is cold-resistant, the development of chlorosis is possible in both



    teas. Especially dangerous are the extreme

    low temperatures during the growing season of

    plants, for example, spring frosts.

    As a result of frosts, plant tissues that soften, shriveled, rotted, the stems of the plants break down, and watery detachments of the tissue appear on the


    . The effect of

    Many plants do not tolerate the wind

    Carefully choose a landing site, especially

    of atmospheric phenomena

    or permanent eddy currents of air

    benno for tender plants, in windy

    ha, resulting from the determined

    places to plant only strong dislocations of the

    state of the buildings, capable of withstanding wind, in

    terrain or dominantroses it-

    generally avoid such places when planting

    firewood. This results in the drying of the plant and vegetable cultures of

    plants, drying and


    leaf folding, general inhibition in development, rapid freezing in cold periods

    Water supply

    Surplus moisture

    Monitor soil moisture level,

    and water regime

    Yellowing and wilting of foliage, stems

    take into account plant requirements, make

    become watery with signs

    drainagea layer for plants undergoing decomposition, plant tissues soften

    to the rapid decay of the root

    , rotting of the roots and root necks of plants,and parts thereof die


    Moisture deficiency

    Leaf drying, yellowing

    Regular and uniform irrigation

    and fall, general withering of plants,

    chlorosis, drying of flowers, underdevelopment of fruits

    The process of forming a microclimate in the garden area begins with a thoughtful location of all the objects on it, placement of settings, fruit trees, shrubs and other crops on the surface of the site, taking into account the sun and shadow. The very location of the site on the terrain with a certain relief affects the distribution of sunlit and shaded areas on the site, which largely determines the types of cultivated plants. The greatest amount of light and heat falls on the surface of the southern slope of the site, since the soil surface is at right angles to the sun's rays. Flat or located on other slopes the site is illuminated by the sun at a sharper angle and therefore receives light and heat not so intensively and for a shorter period of time. The area shaded by trees and buildings, cooler and therefore less suitable for plants that require sufficient illumination, is ideal for plants adapted to such conditions. The northern sides of the site receive less light than the southern, while the eastern and western parts are completely illuminated by the sun for about half a day.

    Windbreak protection

    Faced with an impenetrable fence, air currents form strong turbulences that can damage crop planting.

    Permeable for moving air masses hedges reduce wind speed and weaken its impact on

    crops Thick plantations of trees and bushes can stop the movement of cold air masses

    Cold air rushes down the slope and accumulates in the low

    On the flat surface of the site the preferred direction of placement - north-south. The house in the northern part of the plot protects it from the wind, the sun-lit walls are heated, and the plants planted near the house walls receive heat from them, reflected sunlight and reliable protection against frost, the southern sun part of the site remains free for planting different crops. Location in the sun is, perhaps, the main condition for the location of the garden. Virtually all kinds of vegetables are very responsive to the sun's rays, the more sunlight they shine during the day, the more the harvest, the more qualitative and aromatic the fruits, the lower the nitrate content and the higher the storage capacity. This also applies to spicy-aromatic plants and herbs, which, growing on shaded areas, lose their spicy qualities and aroma by reducing the content of essential oils in them. When locating the garden on the hillside, the south and south-west sides are ideal, where the intensity of the sun exposure is extremely high. However, the drying up of the sun should be compensated for by abundant and regular watering.

    Soil type on the site and ways of its cultivation are also of great importance in the process of creating a microclimate of the garden. During the day the soil accumulates solar heat, and then usually gives it away at night, when the air cools. Thus, the soil acts as a heat accumulator, and the heat that it emits at night, protects plants from frost.

    Soils differ in their ability to give off heat accumulated during the day. Clay soils slowly warm up, but they retain heat for a long time. Sandy soils absorb and

    The choice of a landing site, errors in placement and ways to compensate for them

    give out heat faster. Dense soil is a more efficient heat radiator than soil with a well-cultivated surface. It serves as a kind of screen that prevents the radiation of heat, which creates a threat of freezing plants. The walls of buildings and fences absorb and give off heat in the same way as the soil. This is one of the reasons for the proliferation of delicate plants underneath. In a certain zone, such thermophilic

    plants can be successfully grown in protected areas. A serious factor in the atmospheric effect on planting plants is the wind. plays an important role in creating the microclimate of the garden. When the wind is strong, the plants intensively evaporate moisture and can wilt from lack of water, in addition, they are mechanically damaged. This applies not only to the

    tender and decorative crops: even on apple trees, intense fetal loss can occur due to strong winds.

    For protection against wind, artificial or natural barriers should be created, which can serve as living hedges and fences, which largely form the microclimate of the garden. Impenetrable fences of wood or stone limit the movement of air in the garden and "extinguish" the strength of the wind, but strong air currents, encountering such a barrier, tend to bypass it and form powerful air vortices. This is due to the fact that an impenetrable obstruction causes a sharp rise in the air flow and then its reduction almost immediately beyond the barrier, resulting in gusts of destructive force and turbulent flows. Such air funnels are able to damage even more the crops placed beyond the fence. Therefore, do not make continuous windproof structures, since the wind can not be stopped - its energy should be scattered.

    Significantly better protect from the wind semi-permeable hedges: they promote air circulation in the garden, strengthen the airing of the garden, reduce the strength of wind and air pressure on the surface of the soil. Air masses freely pass through the transparent hedge, while losing speed and strength. A permeable hedge reduces the strength of the wind without the appearance of air turbulence and effectively extinguishes the wind speed at a distance related to its height, like 1:10.Thus, a wind-shelter strip of 15 m high poplars protects the site at a distance of up to 150 m from the leeward side. Planting trees in the direction of the prevailing wind can contribute to the appearance of the tunnel effect, so to reduce the strength of the wind, they should, if possible, be located perpendicular to the flow. To achieve the optimum result, the attenuation of the natural air flow can be controlled by the hedge height. Movement of air in the garden is recommended to adjust also by special plantings. So, beds with vegetables if necessary can be protected from the wind by bushes, powerful perennials, trellises. The total absence of wind and the movement of air masses on the site is no less negative. In a calm place, fungal diseases easily spread, quickly occupying a considerable space and affecting a large number of plants. After rain or even heavy dew, under the influence of

    , the moisture begins to evaporate, creating a damp, stuffy environment, extremely favorable for the development of pathogens. The absence of wind makes the drying process of the soil protracted and stagnant.

    Based on this, it can be argued that the most favorable is the position of beds or other forms of plantations across the dominant wind direction in the area protected from its excessive impact. In addition, the wind plays an important role in the distribution of atmospheric precipitation, and often the land on the leeward side at the base of the fence or trees remains dry - most of the precipitation belongs to the wind further. The soil at the fence, located in the north and east of the site, remains dry due to the small rainfall there, and in the south and west it always dries up because of the excess of solar heat. It is also important to consider the movement of the air masses in the gardens located on the slopes and in the lowlands. Broken at the top of the slope, the gardens are always exposed to strong winds that change direction, and to protect them is much more difficult than on flat terrain. A possible solution to this problem would be an increased height of the hedge around the site or the planting of powerful tree species along the path of the prevailing wind direction. Gardens in the lowlands, in contrast, may suffer from insufficient air movement, lack of ventilation and some stagnation. One of the main problems of low-lying gardens is the freezing of due to the accumulation of cold air in the natural natural basins in which they are located. Cold air is heavier than warm air, so it tends downward along the inclines of the terrain and settles in the lowlands, forming so-called lakes of cold air. This phenomenon is dangerous for planting crops, because because of the absence of wind, cold air masses stay in the lowlands for a long time and can provoke even frost on the soil. Cold air, like water, tends to occupy the lowest level, so the surface of the soil at the foot of the slope is more prone to freezing than the one above. You should not place delicate plants, especially fruit trees that are sensitive to frost during flowering, to places where cold air can be concentrated.

    If the site is located in a lowland or at the foot of a hill, the accumulation of cold air can be prevented by creating dense plantations of tall shrubs or tree species with a spreading crown on the path of its movement.

    When choosing the site of the planting of certain crops on the site, it is important to consider their requirements for the degree of solar illumination. For

    , this should plan the ratio of shaded and sunlit spots on the site, an artificial shadow for shade-tolerant and shade-loving plants can be created with the help of a tree crown, tapestry or garden building elements. Planting such large forms of vegetation as trees, it should be borne in mind that they will grow and will cast a vast shadow, which in the future may be undesirable, so when planting trees, this point should be envisaged as soon as possible. Optimal use of sunlight implies not only the rational distribution of plants according to the area of ​​the site, taking into account their requirements, but also the correct selection of plants by the number and size that they reach in the adult state. This is very important, so that grown plants do not create competition to each other, do not obscure other plantings and could fully develop. Thus, the plot area determines the amount and type of crops grown. Plants on the site should be located, alternating high and low plantings, so that sunlight penetrates into any corner of the garden and do not create shady and cold places.

    Favorable for the plant development conditions form a number of factors, the main among which are climatic, soil quality, solar illumination, and water regime. It is impossible to radically change any of these factors, so they should adapt and seek funds that compensate for their adverse effects.

    Plant cultivation Seeds

    A considerable part of vegetables, spicy-aromatic plants, herbs, medicinal plants and flower crops reproduce generatively, that is, with the help of seeds. In the case of generative propagation of plants by growing them from seeds, all the signs of the mother plant are exactly repeated only in the controlled reproduction of the given variety. Therefore, special attention should be given to the varietal purity of the proposed seed material. Buy seeds only in the

    specialized trade, an important characteristic of the seed is its purity and the absence of impurities, contaminants and foreign additives.

    . Reproduction by seeds.

    . Most plants and crops are grown from seeds, which provides reasonably efficient ways of obtaining a large number of plants in a limited area. Seeds are formed as a result of sexual reproduction of plants, all other methods of plant propagation are vegetative, that is, they are carried out by cultivating a new individual from a part of the organs of an adult grown plant. The seed is the organ of reproduction and propagation of plants. The seed develops from the ovule as a result of the fertilization of the female part of the flower by its male part. Seeds in different plant species differ in their structure, structure, size. But regardless of appearance, all seeds share common features of the structure. The resting seed contains cotyledons, an embryonic root and a special storage tissue endosperm with a supply of nutrients. If such seed is absent, the nutrient reserve is deposited in the cotyledons of the embryo. All this is surrounded by a dense protective layer - the seed coat. The rind tightly covers the seed and provides it with protection from various damages during the period when it is at rest. Cotyledons are the first leaves of the embryo, containing a necessary supply of nutrients for its development.