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  • Composting

    Material

    Methods of bookmarking in compost

    Beveled

    Allow to dry by spreading in the sun and periodically stirring. In the compost,

    lawn grass

    is applied in thin layers, combining with other coarser materials to prevent the

    from churning the shallow grass into lumps, rotting and unpleasant odor.

    . Said

    . The protein-rich green mass decomposes rapidly without causing problems. Before

    plants

    give dry laying, lay the layers alternating coarser materials

    Medicinal

    can be composted separately in flat heaps of compost( a thickness no more than

    herbaceous plants

    30 cm).With this method of composting medicinal plants, the

    can avoid excessive heat generation and conserve all the most valuable products of the

    regimen and curative substances. The exception are considered to tansy and wormwood

    insemination weeds

    To prevent the spread of weed seeds in the garden as part of kompos-

    that, they should be pre-soaked for 10 days in the water, as is the case with

    preparing herbal infusions, and only then to lay in

    compost, straw, hay, reeds,

    is a valuable material, bind moisture in compost piles create

    cane

    good compost porous structure that provides access of oxygen.

    Thoroughly grind and allow to dry, mix with the nitrogen-containing green

    with a mass of compostable plants, kitchen organic waste and

    lay in compost with thin layers of

    . Toxic garden plants

    Digitalis, yew, wolf, rakitnik, lily of the valley, aconite is not worth composting,

    process will not beeffective, since they contain poisonous substances

    kill part microorganisms involved in the decomposition process and kompos-

    tirovanie suspended

    Foliage

    poor pitatsyalnymi substances, but it is characterized by high structural

    substances. It is not recommended to lay foliage in thin layers, as

    as leaves thinner, stick together and it can be difficult to separate even when regulating the compost. To avoid licking the leaves,

    should be dried if it is possible to grind and compost in thin

    layers, mixing with other plant and coarser materials.

    When composting oak leaves containing large quantities of tannic

    acid, lime additive

    is desirable.

    woody parts. Before use, shredding, composting between

    after cutting

    with layers of fine material, this will create a combined structure of

    compost with optimalC: N ratio, ensure good ventilation,

    will prevent material from clotting and the appearance of rotting processes

    chips Characterized by lownitrogen content and are very poorly decomposed, therefore

    must be thoroughly mixed with the green mass of the plant material

    rial, add bone meal and add manure to increase the nitrogen content of

    and accelerate decomposition

    Wood bark

    Compared to sawdust, it has a higher nitrogen content,but the

    does not need to introduce nitrogen-containing additives: bird droppings or

    manure, urea or chemical organic fertilizers to activate the decomposition process of

    , riversThe addition of lime at

    calculation is 10 kg / m3 bark

    . Kitchen wastes

    Are a valuable supplier of organic matter and differ sufficiently

    with high decomposition rate. To prevent rotting processes of kitchen-

    , waste should be mixed with coarser material providing

    with sufficient ventilation.

    When composting meat and other odor-laden waste,

    should be sprinkled with earth to avoid flies, mice, rats.

    . Paper and

    cardboard. They decompose quickly enough and, thanks to the cellulose contained in them, the

    rinses a good structural substance. Before laying in the compost, grind the

    and water it, preferably in the herbal infusion, so that, together with moisture, they absorb additional nutrients into the

    .Lay it in thin layers, combining

    with coarse material, otherwise wet paper will lump and it will make

    more difficult

    decomposition process

    manure Due to the high nitrogen content, the compost is very favorable for

    by the C: N ratio and is a kind of catalyst for the

    processesdecomposition. It is recommended to lay manure one of the layers among the material, the

    from which compost is made, to top with earth

    All organic waste and residues from the house and garden are suitable for composting, especially those that are of vegetable origin. Materials for compost have different composition, value and are characterized by different decomposition times. Especially important for the composting process is the ratio of carbon( C) and nitrogen( N) in the composition of the material. The C: N ratio ranges from 10: 1 in grass to 500: 1 for wood and sawdust. The ideal C: N ratio for obtaining a high-quality compost should be within 25-35: 1, that is, 25-35 parts of carbon should account for 1part of nitrogen, with a smaller value, significant losses of nitrogen during composting are possible, at higher values, the decomposition process inevitably slows down. The optimum C: N ratio for materials in the compost composition is achieved only by a complex proportional mixing of all the materials used.

    The organic mass of household and garden waste becomes a valuable raw material, the most important fertilizer, a source of plant nutrition and a means of keeping the humus layer of soil in the garden Compost, created in a reasonable humification regime, promotes the genesis of the soil.

    Ratio C: N for different types of organic materials

    Material

    Ratio With : N

    Grass, types

    10-20: 1

    Plant-siderates

    15-25: 1

    Harvest waste( vegetables,

    fruit)

    15: 1

    Garden waste

    20: 1

    Dung

    20-30: 1

    Kitchen waste

    25-30: 1

    Bark

    35: 1.,

    Foliage

    40-50: 1

    Needles, pine, fir

    50: 1

    Straw

    50-125: 1

    Sawdust

    500: 1

    From household waste most often in the compost are kitchenwaste-, potato peelings, egg shells, leftover vegetables, cabbage stalks, spoiled fruit and vegetables, banana peels, coffee grounds, tea leaves asleep, some spoiled food. Disagreement raises the question of whether it is possible to compost moldy foods, such as bread and fruit. The opinions on the

    have been divided, some researchers oppose, stating that harmful toxins are released during the decomposition of spoiled products, in particular aflatoxin, which disastrously affect the microflora of

    compost, causing metabolic disturbances, thus inhibiting the decomposition process. Other scientists claim, referring to the results of the experiments conducted, that compost worms and woodworms are able to digest

    fungal spores, mixing it with soil particles, and withdraw from their body in a processed form without harming themselves. To cause adaptation of organisms to this substance, some breeders of worms supply crops intended for their nutrition, mold components. Nevertheless, the share of such spoiled materials in the composition of the compost should be minimal.

    Materials suitable for composting

    Low value of the ratio With : N

    Rich in nitrogen and protein components of , cut grass, weeds, siderum plants, parts of plants after harvest, low-quality vegetables and fruits, hay, cane, reeds, kitchen waste, manure

    High C: N ratio

    Rich in carbon needles, sawdust, wood chips, bark, foliage, straw, paper and cardboard

    An unfavorable decomposition is the peel of citrus fruit, containing such natural preservatives as essential oils. These chemically complex materials are better not to compost so as not to disturb the normal course of the process. In addition, the composting can be pruned fish and meat and small bones. They are the preferred sources of nutrition for soil microorganisms, they also accelerate the decomposition and improve the quality of the compost. However, their scent attracts flies and various pests, including mice and rats, therefore, when added to compost, they must be topped up with earth. For composting, paper and cardboard are also suitable, with some reservations, which should be carefully moistened with water before packing in order to accelerate the decomposition process. Newsprint paper and cardboard decompose quickly enough, glossy paper magazines - much slower, so you should think about its application. Domestic wastes with a weak structure should be mixed with coarser and fibrous garden waste, to which primarily include foliage, mowed lawn grass, weeds, parts of plants after harvesting, poor harvest residues, shredded woody parts of plants after trimming, residueslast year's mulch, soaked plants after cooking herbal infusions, turf. Garden waste is the bulk of the compost material and has a different content of nitrogen and water.

    The issue of composting plants affected by various diseases is very important, since the danger of further infection of plants through compost is quite real. Without fear, you can compost plants and branches of fruit trees, affected by aphids, white fly, mite, powdery mildew, rust, leaf spot, scab, moniliosis, red pustule, and also wormy apples. The causative agents of these diseases do not tolerate the heating that occurs during the decomposition process and die at a temperature of 40 ° C, and the number of many pathogens decreases already in the phase of initial heating. There is an opinion that the use of such a material in the compost can give an antibacterial effect, that is, in the process of decomposition, substances similar in action to antibiotics are formed, and compost, thus, provides plants with additional protection against diseases.

    Materials unsuitable for composting.

    Glass.

    Metal objects, wire, foil,

    Any kinds of plastic.

    Ceramics.

    Construction waste.

    Textiles.

    Any chemical preparations.

    Affected by a number of plant diseases.

    However, the pathogens of a number of plant diseases have high persistence and viability even under heating conditions, and the temperature occurring in the compost bed is not uniform in the different layers and is not sufficient to destroy them. The results of numerous studies have shown that it is absolutely impossible to compost plants affected by cabbage whales, withering of asters and tomatoes, rotten root crops, celery and legumes, which have a white cotton-like dense fungal deposit or black balls on the surface. It is necessary to avoid composting of fungal, bacterial and viral material, since the danger of spreading diseases to other plants by compost can not be ruled out. Doubts about the possibility of composting also affect the seeds of weeds, some of which lose their germination under the influence of temperature increase in the thickness of the compost, while others are not exposed to the effect of heating. To avoid inseminating the garden with weeds when fertilizing with compost, you must first soak them in water for

    for 10 days, as in the preparation of herbal infusion, and then compost. During this time, the seeds will lose their germination, and the weeds themselves will become an excellent plant material. Also recommend another, tested in practice way: decompose the almost finished compost with a layer of 30 cm and allow the weeds to germinate, and then again finely break the material.

    Advantages of compost

    Obtaining stable forms of humus through composting is fast, inexpensive and directly at the site of further direct use.

    The compost process is very environmentally friendly and close to natural processes in its essence.

    Compost has the most close to natural humus structure.

    Since the raw materials for composting have been selected by us, we can not be afraid of the admixture of substances harmful to soil and plant health.

    In the process of composting, special substances are formed that are essentially biocatalysts that have a stimulating effect on the growth and development of plants, as well as inhibitors that inhibit or prevent the development of painful and other undesirable processes in the soil.

    - Having a balanced composition and optimal nutrient content, compost is able to regulate the processes of metabolism in the soil, as well as to correct possible disturbances in metabolism.

    - Compost is a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms and activates the vital activity of soil fauna.

    Thanks to the activity of microorganisms in the compost and in soil fertilized by them, it is possible to suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms or to restrain their development below the threshold of destruction.

    Compost comprehensively improves the structure of the soil, restoring its original ability to repair and fix, delays nutrients and moisture in the surface layer of the soil.

    a Compost is characterized by a mild dosed z-ebbing effect on plants.