May 21, 2018
Homosexuality is an exclusive or predominant focus of attraction on the persons of one's sex, the desire for emotional and physical intimacy with them. A fairly common mistake is the confusion of two concepts - homosexuality and same-sex contacts.
Homosexuals can be called only those whose sexual contact with their gender reflects their preferred or the only desirable form of sexual activity. If homosexual contact arose as a result of the inability to communicate with the opposite sex( prison, army, same-sex group) or is associated with a mental illness, then it can not be considered homosexual. In this case, we are talking about the homosexual behavior of a heterosexual person. In the first case, these are substitute homosexual contacts, in the second - one of the manifestations of a mental illness - symptomatic homosexual activity.
Homosexuality must be perceived only as an alternative variant of the orientation of attraction. It can be said that homosexuality represents a kind of "leftism" in love. This is not an arbitrary choice by a person of an object of love, but an expression of his personal nature, often formed as a result of an innate predisposition.
A nationwide survey in the US showed that 2.8% of men and 1.4% of women consider themselves homosexual or bisexual. In the United Kingdom, 1.1% of men and 0.4% of women had homosexual contacts in the previous year, 1.1% of men and 0.3% of women in France.
According to a survey conducted in St. Petersburg, 1.9% of men experienced an exclusive or preferential attraction to persons of their own sex, and to both sexes - 0.8%;among women, such indicators, respectively, are 1.7% and 1.3%.
Contrary to popular beliefs, the sexual revolution and the legalization of homosexuality do not lead to an increase in the number of homosexual contacts, but only to greater freedom in discussing erotic preferences and revealing them, as well as to reducing people's feelings of guilt over their "atypicality."
At present, in many countries of the world, gay people have become widespread with regard to homosexuals, as they usually call people who accept, openly admit their sexual orientation and adhere to a homosexual lifestyle.
Causes of homosexuality
We can talk about the existence of several mechanisms for the formation of a homosexual orientation. First of all, it can be a "congenital" homosexuality, which is caused by a violation of the balance of male and female hormones in the period from 4 to 7 months of intrauterine development of the fetus. The reasons may be a pregnant woman's intake of certain medicinal or hormonal drugs, the presence of a number of acute or chronic diseases. A frequent cause is intense, long-lasting psychological stress( for example, alcoholization of a husband, constant conflicts, quarrels and beatings, a neurotic state, depression).
In this critical period for the development of the child's organism, the orientation of the drive is implemented, which is included with the onset of puberty. At the same time, the primary sensitivity of the organism, its organs and systems to the effects of male or female hormones is laid, which will determine the subsequent formation of a certain bodily constitution, the degree of expression of secondary sexual characteristics. Prerequisites are created not only for the appearance of bodily differences between the sexes, but also the foundations of psychological differences are laid.
Ultimately simplifying the picture of what is happening, we can say that as a result, a boy with a "female" brain or a girl with a "male" brain is born. This leads to the emergence of interests, personal characteristics and qualities, which are usually peculiar to representatives of the opposite sex. And the sex hormones themselves in life affect the appearance much less than their peers. Hence, in some homosexual men, a higher voice, increased plasticity of movements, softness of facial features, and so on. With the onset of puberty, sexual interest in persons of their sex is awakened, and this process can not be consciously managed.
After the excess of male sex hormones in girls in prenatal development in childhood, they show increased energy, rough games, the preference of boys for communication and a weak interest in traditionally girls' games. With the onset of puberty there are difficulties in communicating with girls, most demonstrate homosexual or bisexual behavior.
With a lack of male sex hormones, boys from childhood discover feminine plasticity and manners, interest in girls' games. Psychologically, they perceive themselves "more like women."
In adolescence, attraction is immediately directed at courageous men, there is no struggle and no guilt about homosexual attraction.
The basis for the second version of the formation of homosexuality is primarily psychological mechanisms. In some people, the initial orientation of the drive is not specified, and with the onset of puberty, the teenager is forced to seek the object of sensual aspirations independently. Usually the "hint" of a society that from an early age forms a psychological attitude toward interest in the opposite sex is triggered. However, in the presence of some personality-characterological features and psychological problems, development can go another way. For example, a part of adolescent boys, especially shy, timid and indecisive or with low self-esteem, experiencing difficulties in communicating with peers and / or feeling "atypical"( more often imaginary), insufficient masculinity, the idealization of the male image as an extremely desirableand difficult to achieve with an emphasis on his physical qualities( strength, masculinity, courage, dominance).This pushes them to unconscious search among peers and older objects for identification, corresponding to the "I-ideal".Strong psychological and emotional attachment with the simultaneous awakening of non-directed sexuality leads to the erosion of the idealization object. Such a person becomes the first and only object of sexual attraction. Only his loss, for one reason or another, leads to the search for a replacement "by analogy", causes interest in other men.
The third variant of the formation of homosexuality presupposes the presence of external barriers on the way to the formation of heterosexual attraction. This can be adverse situational factors. But some barriers are not enough, and the factor of attraction, desirability of same-sex relations is required. For example, there is little disgust as a result of violence from the opposite sex, someone must appear of their gender, who will give everything that is lost, suppressed or blocked, will give a positive emotional experience. It turns out that the possibility and attractiveness of same-sex relationships is formed as an alternative to the blocked heterosexual ™.
Despite the fact that such people consider themselves homosexual, they gravitate more to bisexuality and may be in conflict with attraction.
The process of the formation of homosexual identity does not always go smoothly, quite a lot of young people are experiencing psychological difficulties and moral torments associated with the adoption of atypical attraction. Only 10% of homosexuals in St. Petersburg do not hide their homosexuality from anyone. Almost half opened only to the closest friends. More than 12% of young men regretted their homosexuality or thought that it made them unhappy, and every sixth wanted to get rid of homosexuality in due time and even made various attempts in this direction.
However much the process of sexual identification is tortuous, its completion brings tremendous relief. Recognition of their homosexuality and identification with a homosexual( gay) environment allows a young person to increase self-esteem. People who have determined their sexual orientation, in most cases, consider it to be natural, normal and the only acceptable for themselves.
Psychological characteristics of homosexuals
Of particular interest are the psychological characteristics( differences) of persons with homosexual orientation. Homosexuals believe that the most differ from heterosexual men in that they are "more fragile", "unsportsmanlike", "unable to engage in technology," "not confident in themselves," "more vulnerable," "do not seek leadership", "Tender, sensual," "worried for minor reasons", "lost in difficult situations", "compliant," "more anxious."
Throughout life, homosexual men are more likely to be emotionally unstable, vulnerable, and most vulnerable to some emotional problems, including depression, anxiety, and suicide risk. They are much more lonely than their heterosexual peers, are more likely to find themselves in stressful situations, they find it more difficult to find understanding from others. They experience in explicit or hidden form the pressure of social norms and rules, they face difficulties in finding a permanent partner and establishing harmonious relations with him. Self-esteem among homosexuals is significantly reduced, and they are twice as likely to describe their life as not well-off. They are much more likely to use alcohol and drugs as a way to relieve emotional stress, and as a result, up to a third of homosexuals detect alcohol dependence. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians are more susceptible to depression and also have higher alcohol and drug addiction. Of course, the feeling of its atypia, the need to constantly hide its sympathies, the fear of exposure, aggression and blackmail, the irresponsibility of feelings, the fear of loneliness, the inability to have a family-this is the basis of the constant psychological stress in which homosexuals live. Therefore among them several times more often there are suicides( especially among young men).
At the same time, naturally, homosexuals get a whole complex of psychological qualities and properties that give them advantages in those areas where special grace and plasticity, artistry, musicality, pleasant soft voice, good external data, sensuality, subtlety of nature, ability to capture emotionaland interpersonal nuances.