Pregnancy in diseases of the thyroid gland
Mar 08, 2018
The thyroid gland is an important part of the complex endocrine system of a person and plays a huge role both for the onset of pregnancy, and for bearing and birth of a healthy child.
Thyroid and pregnancy ^
When pregnant, a colossal hormonal adjustment occurs in the body of the woman and any abnormalities in the thyroid gland can lead to serious consequences.
But fortunately, due to the serious achievements of medicine in the field of endocrinology, with proper control and timely treatment, pregnancy, in spite of thyroid diseases, in most cases ends with long-awaited birth.
Women with thyroid abnormalities planning pregnancy are vital:
- early registration,
- endocrinologist consultation,
- strict hormone control throughout the entire period of gestation.
Thyroid hormone thyroid hormone( T4) and triiodothyronine( T3), which contain iodine, depend on the thyroid hormone produced by the mother to determine the formation of the child's metabolism, his nervous system, brain, physical development and even intellect.
If any pathological abnormalities are observed in the thyroid gland, it ceases to cope with the burden associated with the onset of pregnancy. In case of malfunctions, the fetal organs begin to form incorrectly, which leads to multiple malformations, such as mental retardation, dwarfism, deaf-mute, strabismus, as well as miscarriages and stillbirths.
At the onset of pregnancy, the thyroid gland of the expectant mother immediately begins to feel an increased load, because the laying of all vital organs of the fetus occurs with the active participation of thyroid hormones, which starts working immediately on two organisms.
The thyroid gland of the unborn child is laid at 4-5 weeks, but only by the 12th week begins to develop its own thyroid hormones. Until then, the intrauterine development of the child is completely dependent on the mother's thyroid gland.
A healthy thyroid gland should produce thyroid hormones exactly as much as the body needs. It's bad if they are produced more or less than the norm. The most common pathologies in the work of the thyroid gland of expectant mothers are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, which are equally dangerous and require compensation of hormones and constant monitoring in the endocrinologist.
Hypothyroidism and pregnancy ^
In hypothyroidism, the thyroid function decreases and hormones are not produced enough, which often causes a woman to not become pregnant at all.
If pregnancy does occur with hypothyroidism after all, the following symptoms usually appear in a pregnant woman:
- severe weakness,
- decreased performance,
- weight gain,
- dryness of skin and hair,
- symptoms of hemorrhoids,
- often develop anxiety and depression.
Most often, hypothyroidism occurs in pregnant women living in areas with iodine deficiency. According to WHO, 30% of the world's population suffers from diseases caused by iodine deficiency in the body. A pregnant woman should normally receive 200 micrograms of iodine per day, therefore iodine prophylaxis with physiological doses of iodine is carried out throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding.
In addition, doctors advise for proper nutrition during pregnancy with hyperthyroidism, it is necessary to introduce in the diet a sufficient number of natural iodine-containing products such as sea fish, sea kale, citrus, tomatoes, potatoes, beets and when cooking use iodized sea salt.
In order to ensure that the child does not suffer from a lack of vital hormones and does not develop congenital hypothyroidism, which leads to mental and physical disabilities, urgent replacement therapy is needed in the form of hormone thyroxin.
- For 9 months, the expectant mother should regularly donate blood for hormone analysis and visit an endocrinologist who will adjust the dose required.
Hypertension( thyrotoxicosis) and pregnancy ^
In hyperthyroidism( thyrotoxicosis), an opposite hypothyroidism occurs, in which thyroid activity is excessively increased.
- Pregnancy in hyperthyroidism is complicated by the fact that a woman begins to lose weight, sweats heavily, is overly irritated and often can not understand the causes of insomnia.
- In addition, a frequent pulse, symptoms of hypertension( high blood pressure), muscle weakness, trembling of hands and frequent loose stools are possible.
Scientists have proven that excessive production of thyroid hormones is extremely toxic to the developing fetus, poisoning it and provoking the development of various deformities and even fetal death. Therefore, such patients are prescribed antithyroid drugs that can suppress the function of the thyroid gland.
- If hyperthyroidism is not treated or insufficiently compensated, pregnant women often develop gestosis, or late toxicosis, which may lead to the need for an artificial interruption.
- If thyrotoxicosis can be identified at an early stage and start treatment in time, it is possible to achieve its normal course.
In some cases, when it is not possible to achieve the effect of conservative treatment, a surgical operation is performed to remove a part of the thyroid gland. Typically, such an operation is considered to be the most safe in the second trimester and is conducted between the 12th and 26th weeks, when the risk of miscarriage is the lowest.
In addition, pregnant women with hyperthyroidism need to completely eliminate iodine from food and household:
- do not lubricate with iodine wounds,
- iodized salt is replaced with usual,
- remove from the diet fish, seaweed, as well as the popular Japanese dish - roll, inwhich uses seaweed, containing too much iodine.
- If you need to take a multivitamin, complexes are chosen, in which iodine is absent.
- Doctors also do not recommend taking sun and sea baths.
The future mother needs to be very careful about her health:
- To avoid stresses, excessive physical work, less fatigue and receive positive emotions in every possible way.
- It is absolutely necessary to have a full 8-9 hour night sleep, moderate physical activity during pregnancy and daytime rest.
- Regular outdoor walks are very useful, which improve the metabolism and well calms the nervous system.
In order for pregnancy to flow well and the child was born healthy, expectant mothers suffering from any thyroid gland diseases, whether hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, it is necessary to take all the measures in time to compensate for their disease.
Thanks to modern medicine under the strict supervision of an endocrinologist, complications from the improper functioning of the thyroid gland can be avoided even by women with a prolonged and chronic course of the disease.