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Mechanism of development of brown atrophy of the liver

  • Mechanism of development of brown atrophy of the liver

    It is difficult to overestimate the role of the liver in the human body. Therefore, the various pathological conditions of this organ, especially such as cirrhosis or brown atrophy of the liver, play a huge role for the quality and duration of human life.

    Functional role of the liver

    The liver is one of the largest organs, its mass is about 2 kg. Its location is in the right hypochondrium, immediately below the diaphragm. It takes part in the following processes:

    1. Metabolic. All major types of metabolism occur with the participation of the liver - fatty, carbohydrate, protein, water. With her participation, the synthesis of microelements, hormones and vitamins is carried out.
    2. Depositing. In this body, not only all the necessary substances are stored in the body and, as necessary, but also a sufficiently large volume of blood.
    3. Digestive. Bile secretion for the cleavage of fats.
    4. Detoxification. All toxic components that come from outside or are formed as a result of metabolism pass and are deactivated by the liver.
    5. Secretory. In this organ, some hormonal substances and enzymes are synthesized.

    The liver has another very important function - the hematopoietic. After the birth of a person, this role is assumed by other organs.

    Functional capacity of the liver is provided by a special structure of hepatocytes( cells), which have enzymes to participate in various biochemical reactions. Through the liver passes the entire volume of blood from the intestine, so it can completely neutralize the substances coming with the bloodstream.

    But these barrier functions between the body and the environment make the liver very ulcerable, and cause its susceptibility to various pathological conditions that cause atrophy.

    How does atrophy occur?

    Liver atrophy with a decrease in its size is much more common than in other organs. Very few dystrophic changes occur in local causes. As an example, you can lead to dystrophy as a result of pressure( cord livers).

    Most often, liver cells undergo destruction as a result of excessive amounts of toxic substances that they are not able to process, as well as with the aggressive effects of certain viral infections.

    With general exhaustion and atrophic changes throughout the body, the liver suffers more than any other anatomical formation.

    It should be noted that if the liver is damaged as a result of the destructive process, there are changes in other organs. This is explained by the change in normal metabolism in the body, especially in the development of atherosclerosis, associated with the violation of cholesterol synthesis.

    A phenomenon such as acute yellow atrophy of the liver can develop as a result of two pathological processes. This happens with an excess of fat in the diet, as a result of which the liver deposits their part in their own cells, which, failing the load, eventually undergo self-destruction. But sometimes the same form of the dystrophic process can also be observed when exposed to toxins.

    The mechanism of the process is the loss of the ability of the hepatic cells to recover. The reason is starvation and a decrease in the level of glycogen( in connection with which such phenomena were met in large numbers during the war), as well as exposure to hepatitis viruses or poisoning with toxic substances. An important role is played also by various changes occurring during pregnancy. This explains the frequency of occurrence of such a dystrophic process in women. Similar changes are observed in the liver in a pathoanatomical study after the death of a person.

    Brown atrophy

    Brown, or red atrophy of the liver is the highest degree of atrophy of this organ and follows the yellow atrophy.

    This is clinically manifested in the form of two stages - prodromal and pronounced, with impaired hepatic cell function. First comes diarrhea, apatite disorder, nausea, followed by jaundice.

    In the second stage there is a nervous excitement, delirium, confusion. The liver decreases sharply in size. With the general preservation of the proportionality of the structure. Jaundice may increase, but this is not an obligatory sign. There are multiple bleedings, the spleen increases. The composition of urine varies - urea becomes smaller, ammonia and amino acids begin to predominate. In subacute flow, recovery is possible. Treatment is usually symptomatic.

    If you look at the micro preparation "Brown atrophy of the liver," you can see a decrease in hepatocytes and their nuclei in size. Hepatic beads are thinned, and the distance between them is widened. The accumulation of lipofuscin is noted in the cytoplasm of the liver cells. It is an enzyme that has a reddish or dark brown hue. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in the center of the beams and less in the periphery. In some cells, traces of decay are visible. The boundaries of the lobules are clearly visible, they are more visible in the field of vision than in the study of normal liver.

    Brown atrophy can be formed in the elderly, this suggests that the presence of lipofuscin in the cellular structures of the liver can serve as an indication of aging, some experts consider the mechanisms of aging and atrophy similar. Although, up to the end neither one nor the other mechanism has yet been studied.

    In the first stages of the change, only changes in the size of the cell and its intracellular organelles are involved. Their functions are reduced, but they are still preserved. There are processes of slowing metabolism. There is an assumption that this is due to the loss of water by the liquid part of the plasma. If the process is badly started, the cells begin to disintegrate, and the liver reduces its functions.

    Timely appeal for help and properly selected treatment gives quite a lot of chances for recovery with brown atrophy of the liver.

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