Biliary cirrhosis: forms of the disease and symptoms

  • Biliary cirrhosis: forms of the disease and symptoms

    Biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, actively developing pathological process of a destructive-inflammatory nature that damages the bile ducts inside the liver and provokes the appearance of cirrhosis.

    Forms of pathology development

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune pathology of the liver and manifests itself as a chronic non-inflammatory inflammation in the bile canals, which for a long time does not cause symptoms of defeat. It is inflammation that subsequently becomes the main reason for the formation of liver cirrhosis and it affects mainly the female sex at the age of 40 to 60 years.

    Ascites are often associated with the development of this disease: fluid accumulation in the abdominal part, as well as hepatic encephalopathy affecting the human brain, hemorrhages from the affected veins in the esophagus and stomach.

    Secondary biliary cirrhosis is a progressive pathology that develops against the backdrop of a prolonged disruption of bile excretion from large bile ducts. This form mainly affects the male body at the age of 30 to 50 years.

    Symptomatic of the pathological condition of

    Primary biliary cirrhosis may not cause any symptoms, but it can progress slowly and quickly. In the absence of any symptomatology, pathology can be diagnosed on the basis of laboratory diagnosis-that is, with an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, with an increase in cholesterol concentration.

    Typical symptoms of primary biliary cirrhosis are the itch of the skin, which precedes the yellowing of the skin tone and sclera. Skin itch can bother the patient for several months and even a few years, in this connection, patients are often completely unsuccessfully treated by a dermatologist. The incessant itching provokes a large amount of scratching on the arms, legs and back, and jaundice usually manifests itself only after six months or even a year and a half after the itching. With the primary form of cirrhosis, in addition to itching, pain can develop in the right hypochondrium and enlarge the size of the spleen.

    Increasing the concentration of cholesterol in the blood often provokes the formation of yellow spots on the skin. In addition, the formation of vascular asterisks, redness on the palms, also applies to skin disorders. The times of the condition are accompanied by myalgia and numbness of limbs, changes in the shape of the fingers, etc.

    In the expanded stage of the disease, there is an increase in the appearance of jaundice, the general state of health worsens, and the body is depleted. Akvtino developing cholestasis, causes diarrheal disorders - for example, diarrhea. In case of complication of the disease, the symptom of biliary cirrhosis also includes the formation of gallstones, an ulcer in the duodenum.

    In the late stages of the disease, a person develops osteoporosis, osteomalacia, abnormalities of the extremities, hemorrhage, varicose veins in the esophagus can occur. Lethal outcome occurs as a result of liver failure due to portal hypertension, ascites and gastrointestinal bleeding.

    How to implement the correct medical process

    The main objectives of the treatment process for biliary cirrhosis are the arrest or regression of pathological disorders in the organ, the treatment of already developed complications such as cholestasis or liver failure or organ transplantation. Drinking alcoholic beverages and any toxic drugs is required to be excluded.

    Taking ursodeoxycholic acid inside while eating helps reduce baking damage, prolong the patient's life and delay the implementation of liver transplantation in about 20% of patients, even after a four-month treatment there is no improvement in the biochemical blood count. We can conclude. That in this situation the disease is actively progressing and after a while the patients will need an urgent liver transplant.

    Other drugs that are used to treat the liver, do not affect the overall clinical outcome of the disease and can give an inconsistent effect. These drugs should include colchicine, penicillamine, methotrexate and others.

    Itching of the skin can be controlled with cholestyramine, taking it 6 to 8 g twice daily. Some patients report a decrease in skin itching with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment simultaneously with ultraviolet exposure. Others - after taking opiate antagonists or rifampin.

    Lack of fat suggests an additional course of treatment with calcium and taking vitamins A, E, K and D. With simultaneous osteoporosis, along with calcium preparations, vitamin D intake, the realization of therapeutic gymnastics and estrogens are necessarily prescribed. On the advanced stages of pathology, treatment of portal hypertension and cirrhosis is necessary.

    Organ transplantation can give unexpectedly positive results. A common indication for the organization of transplantation are frequent hemorrhages from the enlarged veins, intolerable itching of the skin, refractory form of ascites and liver encephalopathy.survival of patients after one goal after organ transplant is exceeded the rate of 90%, the survival rate for five years is more than 80%.The primary form of biliary cirrhosis can develop again in about 15% of cases during the first few years after surgery, but these data were not officially recognized by the world medical science.

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