How is hepatitis from adults vaccinated and manifested?
May 16, 2018
One form of liver disease is an infectious viral disease of hepatitis. It can be transmitted from person to person, and some types of it can grow into chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer, as well as liver failure. One of the most effective ways to prevent human infection with viral hepatitis is vaccination.
Currently, there are vaccines against hepatitis A and B. Moreover, vaccination against hepatitis B is included in the mandatory vaccination schedule, and from hepatitis A vaccination is made at will, mainly before traveling to the geographical areas where this infection is common. The cost of vaccination against hepatitis B depends on the manufacturer of the vaccine.
Vaccination from hepatitis to adults
It is not only children, but also adults, who can get the vaccine against hepatitis. To avoid infection, the vaccine should be given to adults no older than 55 years old who did not previously have hepatitis B in childhood and did not receive it.
The main facts about vaccinations against hepatitis B:
- The vaccination against hepatitis B can be done at any age.
- inoculation against hepatitis is not synthetic;
- it carries no infectious danger, that is, infection with the hepatitis virus can not occur;
- an adult hepatitis vaccine contains only a part of the virus and for this reason it can not cause infection, as it forms a full-fledged immune defense that is prolonged for life.
The hepatitis vaccine is obtained by genetic engineering and contains only protein, not a virus. Therefore, it is impossible to get hepatitis B due to the vaccine itself.
Older children and adults are vaccinated according to the 0-1-6 months schedule. That is, the second inoculation against hepatitis occurs one month after the first. And the third inoculation against hepatitis - in half a year after the initial. The vaccination protects against infection for 8 years or more.
If an infection has suddenly come into contact with the infection or a large operation with a blood transfusion is planned, then an accelerated vaccination schedule can be carried out. And you need to conduct prevention as soon as possible. If contact has already occurred in the vaccinated patient, then the level of protective AT in the blood should be determined. And if the indicator is above 10 mIU / ml, no additional prophylaxis is performed, and in other cases additional vaccination, the introduction of a special immunoglobulin should be carried out.
If at the time when the vaccination was planned, a person has fever or a general malaise, it is necessary to transfer the vaccine to a later date, until complete recovery.
Allergy to hepatitis B vaccination may occur if a person has a serious allergy to food yeast or to any component included in the vaccine. Therefore, before vaccination, you need to report this to the staff of the medical institution.
The impact of the vaccine on the pregnant woman's organism and fetal development has not been fully studied.
Possible side effects of
Vaccination against hepatitis B is one of the safest that a person is administered throughout life. But, despite this, and she may have a reaction to an inoculation against hepatitis, which are often associated with the individual intolerance of the human body components of the drug.
Adverse reactions may be:
- pain at the site of vaccination( occurs in 1 case for 4 vaccinations);
- increased body temperature, as a result of vaccination( occurs in 1 case of 15 vaccinations).
More severe consequences after hepatitis vaccination, resulting from the introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine, are very rare. According to statistics, rather serious allergic reactions to vaccinations against hepatitis, are observed in 1.1 cases of 1 million vaccinated.
Reactions such as headache and dizziness, paresthesia( sensation of the goosebumps and numbness), and also from the digestive tract - nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, are considered very rare side effects. On the part of the musculoskeletal system, there is myalgia, arthralgia.
Complications for Hepatitis A Vaccination
Any vaccine, like various medications, can cause serious complications. All the side effects of vaccination against hepatitis of any variety are very similar. It can be redness, condensation on the site of grafting, possibly a rise in body temperature. Allergic reactions are very rare.
The risk of serious complications or even death following vaccination against hepatitis A is very low.
To pass the vaccination against hepatitis A will be much safer than to get sick with this disease.
Where do they get vaccinated?
The hepatitis B vaccine should be injected into the muscle. The substance can not be administered subcutaneously, since this significantly reduces its effectiveness, leads to the formation of a seal. In some countries, improperly administered under the skin vaccine is not considered effective, so it is canceled and after a while the injection is repeated. This is due to the fact that when you inject it into the muscle, the whole dose comes completely into the blood, thus causing the immune response of the required strength.
Usually children under 3 years of age, including newborns, are inoculated into the thigh. In older patients, the vaccine is injected into the shoulder. Such a choice of place for the introduction of the vaccine is due to the fact that the muscles and muscles are well developed on the shoulder and thigh and are located close to the skin. Also, one should not get an inoculation into the gluteus muscle, since the subcutaneous fat layer is very well developed, and the muscle lies deep enough, so getting it is more difficult. In addition, an injection in the buttocks can damage the vessels or nerves.