Early diagnosis of gonorrhea is the key to successful treatment of the disease!
Mar 12, 2018
Gonorrhea is a serious venereal disease that can eventually lead to chronic inflammatory conditions of the genitourinary system of the body and infertility. The causative agent of the disease is the gonococcus.
By itself, the disease can be hidden for quite some time. Therefore, patients may even not suspect that they have gonorrhea. This is an infectious disease that is transmitted sexually, and it often happens that the symptoms of a sexual partner manifest themselves very quickly. And the other can not suspect the presence of gonorrhea in itself for years. The question of how to detect the disease is not difficult today due to the availability of special methods and methods of modern laboratory diagnostics.
That is why it is extremely important to detect the disease early in the initial stages of development, since if the disease lasts for years, then the probability of serious organic damage increases significantly.
How can I get infected?
The disease can occur in acute and chronic form. The causative agent affects the mucous membranes of the organs of the genitourinary system, rectum, pharynx, sometimes the mucous eye is affected.
Gonorrhea is transmitted during exposure to infected secretions( sperm, vaginal discharge, rectal mucus) and during sexual intercourse. Infection with gonorrhea can also occur from mother to child during pregnancy and during childbirth, through birth canal.
Infectious conjunctivitis may develop if the infected material gets into the eye mucosa. The attack of the pathogen through the eyes is also affected by the newborn, when passing through the birth canal of the mother, who is sick with gonorrhea.
What are the signs of gonorrhea?
The disease can manifest itself immediately the next day, and sometimes it happens that the first symptoms of gonorrhea appear only after a month, a year or several years. Most often, the first signs appear within a week after the pathogen has entered the body.
Almost 50% of women have asymptomatic gonorrhea, like 10% of men who have fallen ill. However, there are signs characteristic of this disease:
- Appearance of abundant, watery discharge, having a yellow, white, green color.
- Pain is noted when urinating.
- There are pains in the lower abdomen, in men - in the testicles.
- The manifestation of gonorrhea in women is expressed in heavy menstrual bleeding, as well as the appearance of such bleeding between cycles.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea consists in the analysis of patient complaints, examination and laboratory studies of the material. It is extremely important to remember that gonorrhea, especially in women, can often be hidden and have an unclear clinical picture, so the doctor should never be based on the data of a single examination in the final diagnosis.
Laboratory diagnostics of gonorrhea allows to determine the presence of gonococcus in the material under investigation in various ways and methods.
Taking swabs from the vagina, urethra, urinalysis can show the presence of pathogens in the test material. However, this method is not 100% reliable, especially if it is a chronic disease.
Bacterioscopic methods of dye staining can identify acute and subacute forms of gonorrhea.
A more accurate picture is the sowing of flora from the genitals and their secretions. In this method, the test material is placed in a special medium, which is optimal for the growth of this type of pathogenic microflora, in particular, gonococcus. The accuracy of the result in this case is quite high - 95 - 100%.However, this analysis is carried out over a period of one week.
There is also a method of Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR), which is a diagnosis of the DNA structure of the pathogen. This method of diagnosing gonorrhea is very well proven in the detection of chronic and asymptomatic forms. However, one should know that the accuracy of PCR is reduced in the case of gonorrhea with abundant, purulent secretions. The result is usually ready quickly, within 1-2 days.
Direct immunofluorescence( PIF) is also used to diagnose gonorrhea. This method of research is also carried out quite quickly, but its accuracy is about 70%.Based on the foregoing, it is obvious that PCR and culture are more preferable.
Taking swabs with gonorrhea is mandatory, as opposed to analyzing syphilis. As for serological blood tests for the detection of gonorrhea, they are usually not performed in clinical practice.
Anamnesis of a patient's life plays a significant role in the diagnosis. Lifestyle, sexual relations, the presence of a permanent partner or his absence - all these data will allow the doctor to correctly establish the cause of discomfort, pain and unusual discharge in the patient. It is also important to know whether the patient had had a genital infection before, how the treatment was performed, etc.
Physical examination of the patient helps to determine the presence of the disease by the nature and intensity of the discharge. With gonorrhea, the highest concentration of secretions is observed in the morning, most often of a purulent nature. Palpation of the genital organs will help to establish their soreness.
The serological method allows us to identify the chronic form of gonorrhea, but this method is ancillary. The Borde-Zhang reaction is used to detect gonococcal infection, working as a complex of "antigen plus antibody".
Immunoenzyme analysis - allows to detect the presence of non-viable strains or resistant forms.
It should be remembered that the diagnosis of chronic form, asymptomatic and asymptomatic forms of gonorrhea will have significant differences. Therefore, in such cases, a provocation is carried out, which happens:
- biological( under the influence of the gonovaccine);
- chemical( silver nitrate, Lugol solution is introduced);
- mechanical( metal bougie);
- is alimentary( provoked by salty or spicy food, alcohol);
- natural( menstruation).
Prevention of the disease consists in the timely, qualitative diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of gonorrhea. You can not engage in self-medication, apply methods of traditional medicine, treat the disease at home independently, without the supervision of a doctor. Running forms can cause infertility!