• Antispermal antibodies in blood serum

    As usual, there are no antispermatous AT in the serum of .

    In men, antispermal ATs are formed as a result of an autoimmune reaction to the spermatogenic epithelium. Etiological factors, such as

    , include testicular trauma, bacterial and viral infections, surgical operations on the testicle( for example, after vasectomy, antispermal AT is detected in all men), in some cases, the cause can not be established. To determine antispermal antibodies, ELISA is currently used, which is more sensitive and specific, and also allows the determination of ATs of different classes( IgA, IgM and IgG).The study of antispermal ATs of various classes allows quantifying the severity and severity of the autoimmune process, in addition, in men, the serum AT concentration correlates with the prognosis for the restoration of the ability to fertilize.

    In women, normal arterial hypertension is not produced against Ag spermatozoa, however, various etiological factors( eg, infections, autoimmune diseases) can lead to loss of immunological tolerance. Currently, the point of view is growing, according to which the recognition of spermatozoa by the immune system of a woman is important for normal fertilization and fetal development in the early stages of pregnancy. Normally, in the absence of blood in the blood under the influence of spermatozoa, the immunocompetent cells of the pregnant woman produce cytokines that promote the formation of trophoblast, the growth and formation of the placenta, and implantation. If antispermal AT is present in a woman's blood, these processes are violated, which leads to the termination of pregnancy, gestosis, delayed fetal development, fetoplacental insufficiency. In women, there is no clear correlation between the concentration of AT in the blood serum and the prognosis for fertility usually fails.

    Antispermal ATs to superficial Ar spermatozoa are found not only in the serum, but also in the cervical mucus, where they can damage or agglutinate spermatozoa, which prevents the fusion of the spermatozoon with the egg and conception.

    Research on antispermal AT is recommended for all couples with unexplained infertility.