Apr 22, 2018
Synonyms: Mint English, mint cold.
Family of labial flowers. Rhizomatic perennials, stems for the winter die, branched, thick-leafed;leaves broadly lanceolate, with a specific minty smell;inflorescences of apical, flowers with one axis of symmetry, small.
Long-leafed mint. Stems up to 95 cm tall;leaves sessile, ovate-oblong, pubescent;inflorescences whorled-bilobate, flowers lilac or purple;flowers in July-August.
Spearmint spicery. The leaves are gray-green, the flowers are lilac-pink.
Peppermint. Leaves petiolate, oblong or ovate;inflorescences spiked, flowers violet-pink or red-violet;blooms in July - August. Requirements for moisture: Moisture-loving. Requirements for heat and light: frost-resistant, heat and light-loving plant.
Description. Perennial herbaceous plant of the family of the clear-cut( La-miaceae).Rhizome underground, branched, horizontal, tetrahedral, with thickened nodes, giving beams of thin additional roots. The stems are numerous, 30-55 cm in height, branched, tetrahedral, with sparse, short, dark purple hairs or glabrous. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, elongate-ovate or oblong, dark green on top, light green below, about 4-8 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. Flower corollas - irregular, pale purple, collected in spicate inflorescences. The fruit consists of four small nuts, a reddish-brown color. The mass of 1000 nuts( seeds) is about 0.06-0.07 g. It blossoms in July-August.
Medicinal raw materials: leaves, grass.
Biological features of .Moisture loving, photophilous, whimsical to the soil plant. It easily tolerates excessive moisture in spring and autumn and even short-term spring flooding. The highest yields occur in lowland areas. Especially a lot of moisture requires in the first half of summer, before the formation of buds. Seeds almost does not form, but reproduces vegetatively - by segments of rhizomes, weaves and stems. The number of fruits is very small. When multiplying seeds, peppermint gives a complex splitting( a variety of forms).In the rhizomes, the rest period is short-about two months( October-November), as a result of which they often die in the winter;early in the spring they germinate, and with repeated frost they freeze. They are located shallowly( 3-7 cm).With increasing humidity and compacting the soil comes to the surface. On compacted soils, rhizomes spread over the surface and give rise to many shoots that come out of them in the form of weaves.
Distribution. In the wild, mint is not found, but is known only in culture. It is grown in many countries( England, France, China, Japan, USA) for more than 200 years. The main industrial plantations of peppermint are located in areas with high humidity of soil and air, in areas with mild winters and sufficient snow cover, on even, clean weeds with fertile light soils. Such areas include Chernihiv, Sumy, Kiev, Khmelnitsky and Crimean regions.
Chemical composition. Mint grass contains about 2-3% essential oils. The main component of peppermint oil is menthol( 16-18%), for which, mainly, mint is grown. In addition, mint contains dipentene-1-limonene, cineole, mentofuran, thymol, carvacrol, etc.), as well as tannic and tarry substances, sugar.
Agrotechnics of cultivation. Site selection. For peppermint, it is necessary to remove even, clean from weeds, highly fertile areas and cultivated peat lowland and floodplain soils. Although now it is successfully grown on ordinary field chernozems. The best predecessors are winter crops that are fertilized by steam, cereals, corn for silage and tilled crops, under which fertilizers were applied.
Soil treatment. After the grain precursors, the soil preparation is carried out according to the system of autumn plowing to a depth of 28-30 cm, with pre-stripping of the stubble. In the Crimea dry in the fall for 10-15 days before deep plowing irrigation is carried out. In spring, the field is harrowed, polished, then cultivated to a depth of 8-12 cm with simultaneous harrowing in 2-3 tracks. After the tilled predecessors they plow right after their harvest. Lowland areas, which are flooded with meltwater, plow to a depth of 25 cm after the water drops and the soil dries, with simultaneous harrowing in 2-3 tracks.
Application of fertilizers. Before autumn plowing, 30-40 t / ha of manure or compost should be added. When there is a lack of organic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers are added at a rate of 2.5-3 centners / hectare of nitrogen fertilizers;2-2.5 c / ha of phosphate and 1-1.5 c / ha potash.(If mineral fertilizers are added together with organic fertilizers, the number of the latter is reduced by half).On poor sandy soils, good results are obtained by sowing lupine, which is smelted during autumn plowing as a green nitrogen fertilizer.
Reproduction. Mint is propagated vegetatively - by segments of rhizomes and by planting young shoots. Seedlings are rarely planted. The biggest yield is given by mint, propagated by rhizomes - it develops better, is less affected by pests and diseases.
Before planting, the rhizomes are cut into pieces 20-40 cm long with 10-12 nodes. The best time for planting in Ukraine is considered to be early spring. Plant 8-10 d of rhizomes per 1 ha. Selected unextended fresh rhizomes are placed in furrows made with the help of cultivators to a depth of 8-10 cm, in one line and covered with damp earth. Planted with a row spacing of 45-60 cm
In this case, the rhizomes are cleaned of old roots, stems and chopped into short pieces 8-10 cm long on straw choppers. Peppermint can be planted manually and in square-nest way at a feeding area of 45x45 or 60x60 cm, for which the field is pre-marked across, and then furrows along. At the intersections of the furrows with the marker, cut the rhizomes( 4-5 per each nest) and cover them with damp earth manually. This method makes possible the subsequent mechanized processing of plantations in two directions, and also considerably reduces the consumption of rhizomes( 4-5 instead of 8-10 centners / ha).The seedlings are planted with a transplant machine at the stage of 3-5 pairs of leaves around the end of April or the beginning of May. Young shoots on the queen cells are excavated with part of the old rhizomes. After the appearance of the roots, each plant is excavated and planted separately.
Care for plantations. When rows or nests with shoots are determined, the soil is loosened by cultivators to a depth of 8-10 cm. With the appearance of weeds in rows and leveling of the soil after cultivation, harrowing across rows of 2-3 tracks is performed. The subsequent loosening of rows is carried out as necessary( until the rows close), and the weeds in the rows are removed manually. On the square-nesting plantations plantations are treated in two directions. On the plantations planted with seedlings, the plant survival rate is checked and new ones are planted in the places of falling out. Transitional plantations before the onset of a cold snapping plow to a depth of 15-18 cm. If the soil is dry, plowing is transferred to spring, at the same time, lowland plantations are also plowed. This is done by tractor plows with screw dumps or skimmers and disk knives. Following the plowing, the plantations are harrowed, and the mint roots, combed out, are used to lay new areas. After harrowing, the field is rolled up by heavy ringed skating rinks and so left for the winter. Due to the fact that mint in the conditions of Ukraine often freezes, produce snow retention, as well as mulching the soil with compost. In the early spring, the transitional plantations, plowed from autumn, harrow 2-3 tracks before the emergence of sprouts. When new shoots appear, new rows are cut across the old( last year) rows that existed before plowing. To do this, set the disk blades on the frame of the cultivator in such a way that an untouched strip of 20 cm wide remains through each 40 cm wide row. A new row of mint is formed on these strips.
Harvesting. Green mint leaves are collected in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering. In production conditions, they often begin to collect in the 50% flowering stage, and finish at full bloom in clear dry weather. Gather mint with hay mowers with swathing gratings. The mown plants after raking in the rolls in the evening are raked into small piles, which the next day are folded into one. Collecting herb mint for factory processing on essential oils is carried out in the same way as green leaves for pharmacies, but already in the full flowering phase, because at this time there is the largest yield of essential oils. The average mint yield is about 10-17 c / ha, and in irrigated plots - 20-25 c / ha and more. Harvest for 2 cuts in the Crimean region often reaches 20-25 centners per hectare.
Drying. Approximately 3-4 days after collection, when the mint dries a little, it is taken to currents where it is spread thickly, periodically turned over to prevent blackening, and the largest leaves from the stems are chafed. Then the leaves are dried in the air cushions( or under a canopy);Stems after drying add to the scraps for processing on essential oils. The dried leaves are cleaned of sand and organic impurities on screens with holes 3 mm in diameter.
Packing. After drying and sorting, mint leaves are packed in plywood boxes lined with parchment paper from inside. The grass is packed in bales and sent to the plant for processing to essential oils.
Storage .Before packing leaves, covered on all sides with tarpaulins, are stored in dry rooms to prevent moisture.
Growing of planting material and its storage. For the reproduction of planting material, each farm is laying the uterine plantations( queen cells), which constitute 10% of the total area planned for a given crop. It should be areas protected from cold winds on the best lowland( if any) soils, highly fertile, seasoned with organic fertilizers, clean from weeds. Before planting, 30-40 t / ha of humus or compost are applied to them. Sad only selected full-grown rhizomes. The width of the rows is 60 cm. Full-grown seedlings are planted in low-lying areas. Make 4-5 t / ha of humus. To obtain a high yield of rhizomes, mint grass is harvested at the end of summer, when growth and accumulation of nutrients stop.
Store rhizomes in the kagats, where they are laid in late autumn, before freezing. Rhizomes can be stored in the soil - at the site of cultivation, if the site is closed, does not freeze out and is not flooded with water. In Crimea, rhizomes are collected in small piles, which are covered with a layer of soil( 10-12 cm) and stored there until planting.
Features: is widely used as medicinal and edible plants.
Usage: stony and alpine gardens, heavily pitted areas, mixborders.
P Application: mint has a pleasant minty odor and has a refreshing effect. The taste is cold, refreshing, spicy-minty. In pharmaceuticals from peppermint medicinal teas are prepared, included in the composition of medicinal herbal preparations, tinctures and syrups are made. Essential oil of peppermint and pure menthol are included in many medicines. It is used in the production of liqueurs, in the confectionery industry and cosmetics.
A special place is occupied by peppermint in English cuisine when preparing sauces for mutton. In American cuisine mint is added to improve the taste and aroma of cocktails and various fruit and vegetable salads. In Arabic and Spanish cuisine mint is served on the table as spicy greens. In France and Italy, dried crushed mint leaves are added to various spice mixtures. In domestic use, use fresh and dried mint leaves. Dried leaves should be a beautiful green color. Mint leaves improve the taste of roast, fried lamb, mutton and chicken. It is added to stewed cabbage, carrots and peas. Fresh shoots and leaves in small amounts can be used by adding them to vegetable soups, marinades for meat, fish and to dishes of cheese. Fresh and dried leaves of mint are added when brewing tea to flavor it. Fresh leaves can be put in milk to prevent souring.
Cutlets chops with mint
For 3 pork cutlets or mutton chops 4 mint leaves, 1 tomato, 2-4 cloves of garlic, salt, black pepper, vegetable oil Cutlets slightly beat off and slightly trimmed so that a pocket is formed in which to attachmint, a slice of a tomato and an incised chive of garlic. Pocket with a wooden stick, salt, pepper, oil, put on a grate on charcoal. Serve with bread and salad.
1/2 tsp.citric acid, 2 tbsp.l.sugar and dried mint, 1 liter of water
Boil water with citric acid and sugar, cover with mint, cool and strain. The edges of the glass can be rubbed well with a slice of lemon, dipped in sugar, dried, and then gently poured the drink, put a piece of ice into it.
Drink from mint
10 g. Dried mint, 120 g. Sugar, 1 l of water Pour the mint with water. Cook in a sealed container with a light boil for 3-5 minutes, drain, add sugar, cook for 2-3 minutes, cool. Jelly lemon with mint.
100 g of mint leaves, juice of 2 lemons, 3 tsp.gelatin, sugar or honey, 100 g cream, 0.5 l water Beautiful mint leaves( 3-5 pieces) put aside for decoration. The remaining leaves are finely chopped, pour a small amount of vodka, leave to stain the liquid. Through gauze to squeeze out of leaves mint essence. To boiled water in a saucepan add sugar or honey, mint essence and swelled gelatin in water. When the gelatin is dissolved, add the lemon juice, pour the mixture in a thin layer into the prepared forms, greased with olive oil, put mint leaves in them and, if desired, berries or pieces of fruit, place in the refrigerator and, when the jelly is cold, pour the remaining mixture and cool again. Pour the jelly into a dish and serve with whipped cream.