Diabetic nephropathy of the kidneys, as manifested and why it affects the kidneys
Diabetic nephropathy of the kidneys is a bilateral renal pathology that provokes a worsening of their functioning and develops due to the influence on the organ of a variety of damaging factors that are formed in the process of contracting diabetes mellitus. Nephropathy is considered a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, which determines the prognosis of the underlying disease.
The first symptoms of nephropathy development are a large loss of protein, which leaves the body with urine. It easily overcomes damaged filters. Gradual progression of such a process with the passage of time significantly worsens the ability of the kidneys to remove slags from the body in time, thus provoking the development of acute kidney failure.
Another prominent symptom of nephropathy is the increase in blood pressure. Often, nephropathy is particularly dangerous because of the possibility of influencing the vessels that feed the brain and other organs.
Risk factors for the development of the pathology
The main risk factors for damage to the body by diabetic nephropathy are:
- Excess weight.
- Prolonged course of diabetes.
- Arterial hypertension.
- Inconsistent monitoring of blood sugar concentration.
If all of these factors are eliminated, it becomes possible to slow the development of nephropathy.
Symptoms of pathology
Diabetic nephropathy usually progresses very slowly, and the kidney nephropathy symptoms primarily depend on the stage of its development. There are the following stages:
- Asymptomatic - thus there are no clinical symptoms of pathology, but about the beginning of the process of disruption of the kidney tissue says an increase in the rate of filtration in the glomeruli. There is also an increase in blood flow in the kidneys and kidney hypertrophy develops.
- Initial changes in the structure of the organ - with the formation of the first changes in the structure of the glomeruli of the kidneys - the walls of the capillaries thicken, etc. Also, increased blood circulation in the kidneys and increased filtration in the glomeruli.
- The prenaphrophic stage - the content of microalbumin begins to exceed normal values, but does not reach the level of proteinuria, blood circulation and filtration in the glomeruli are normalized or slightly elevated. Sometimes there is a sharp increase in blood pressure.
- The nephrotic stage - at the same time the presence of protein in the urine is constantly diagnosed. Occasionally, blood appears in the urine. There is a decrease in renal circulation and filtration rate in the glomeruli. Increased blood pressure practically does not decrease and acquires a stable character. The formation of edema begins, anemia develops, the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation increases.
- Nephrosclerotic stage - the concentration and filtration function in the kidneys sharply worsens, and this provokes a pronounced increase in the concentration of urea and creatinine in the blood. At the same time, the concentration of protein in the blood decreases, so there are strong swelling. When analyzing urine, it reveals blood and protein, and anemia acquires a pronounced character. Arterial pressure does not drop and reaches high values. At this stage of development of diabetic nephropathy, despite the high concentration of glucose in the blood, the presence of sugar in the urine is not detected. Also, at this stage of pathology development, the rate of degradation process decreases for endogenous insulin, in addition, insulin ceases to wash out from the body together with urine, therefore the body's need for exogenous insulin administration decreases. This stage ends the formation of a chronic form of kidney failure.
Diagnosis of pathology
Ideally, the diagnosis of nephropathy should be carried out in the early stages of its development. Early detection of the disease involves the organization of monitoring the content of microalbumin in the urine. In a normal state in urine, the concentration of microalbumin does not exceed 30 mg per day. Exceeding these indicators indicates the beginning of the development of pathology. If the high concentration of microalbumin is observed constantly, then we can speak about the rapid progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Another manifestation of pathology is the diagnosis of renal filtration, that is, a determination of the concentration of creatinine in daily urine.
In the late stages of the development of diabetic nephropathy, diagnosis does not cause any complications and involves the identification of the following abnormalities:
- The presence of protein in the urine.
- Reduction of filtration rate in renal glomeruli.
- Increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea in the blood stream.
- Increased blood pressure.
- The formation of a nephrotic syndrome, which is supplemented by strong proteinuria, swelling and a decrease in protein content in the blood.
Treatment of pathology
The transition from preventive treatment to treatment should be carried out in the process of formation in the body of the prenaphrotic stage.
For this, the following measures are implemented:
- Dietary nutrition, consisting in limiting the use of animal proteins.
- Correcting dyslipidemia.
- ACE inhibitors.
Treatment of nephropathy of the kidney in the 4 stages of development is:
- Organization of low-protein nutrition.
- Refusal to consume salt.
- ACE inhibitors.
- The organization of nutrition, assuming a low concentration of fats, taking medications that help restore lipid metabolism in the body and the lipid spectrum of the blood.
Because of the development of the risk of hypoglycaemia, that is, a decrease in blood glucose, 4 needs to pay more attention to blood glucose monitoring, so blood glucose is often discarded because of the high risk of hypoglycemia.
The fifth stage is characterized by the necessity of carrying out the listed activities plus additional methods of treatment, namely:
- Restoration of normal hemoglobin concentration in the blood.
- Prevention of osteoporosis.
- Statement of the issue of hemodialysis or donor organ transplant.
In any situation, the final decision on the methods of treatment should only be made by a specialist.