Kidney transplantation to children, contraindications and ways of exercising
The frequency of renal pathology in children and adolescents in the modern world is correlated with unfavorable environmental conditions and economic factors. At present, kidney transplantation is considered an acceptable treatment for the last stage of development of chronic kidney failure.
The first successful kidney transplantation for a child was carried out in 1953.Now throughout the world there are many medical institutions, specializing in kidney transplantation for children. According to official sources, survival after surgery is 90%, and the survival rate of the transplant is approximately 85%.
The factors that improve the result of the transplant include: careful preparation of the patient for surgery, use of modern anesthesia, improved technique of surgery and the use of newest immunosuppressive drugs.
Contraindications and complications of operation
Until recently, there were such contraindications for the transplantation, as the age of the child - it was forbidden to perform surgery for children under 10 years and weighing less than 20 kg. Also, the lack of donation among children significantly complicates and sometimes makes it impossible to place the kidney of an adult person in the ileum of the child due to lack of space and insufficient diameter of the vessels of the iliac region that can provide good blood flow in the kidney of the donor.
Methods of retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal kidney transplantation cause some technical difficulties, as well as violations of the hemodynamics of the child after the start of blood circulation. In this regard, such techniques need further improvement.
It is also difficult to implement the operation for young children due to anesthesia and an early postoperative period, so you need to find the best approaches.
It turns out that the problem of rendering highly qualified care for children affected by the terminal stage of kidney failure requires permission, because such an operation is considered to be key and at the moment no alternative methods of treatment have been developed.
Indications and contraindications for operation
Indication for kidney transplantation in a child is considered the diagnosis of the terminal stage of kidney failure. This requires taking into account both absolute and relative indications for the organization of the operation.
Absolute contraindications for surgical intervention are:
- Heart defects accompanied by severe blood flow disorders.
- Systemic pathologies. Mental pathology - cerebral palsy, etc.
It turns out that the absolute contraindications include those lesions that are not amenable to adjustment, dividing the kidney transplantation inappropriate for its social and biological characteristics.
Features of the operation of
Surgical methods for preparing a patient for transplantation cooperation include bilateral nephrectomy, which is performed when a person has pionephrosis, infected nephrolithiasis or polycystic kidney disease.
If the patient suffers from a peptic ulcer, then for him pyloroplasty is organized. Occasionally, it may be necessary to remove the parotyroid glands.
General principles of surgical intervention remain the same as in the implementation of other types of urological operations.
Correctly performed kidney transplantation for children and adolescents begins to stimulate the available reserves in the body for growth, emotional, physical and social development. Successful operation allows to accelerate growth, normalize weight, and over time, the delay in the development of such children becomes invisible.
Indicators of the quality of life of children after a successful transplant operation are much better, unlike children who are on hemodialysis. The success of organ transplantation in a child is associated with the progression of pharmacology, the skill of doctors and the improvement of the process of selection of donor organs.
The most active for children are grafts from living relatives, but this problem has not been fully resolved. The use of grafts from living relatives can explain the possibility of obtaining a better effect due to genetic similarity and good organ status.
As a rule, a related kidney transplant is considered a planned operation, and the stress experienced by both the donor and the recipient is markedly reduced.
In the presence of a potential donor for a child, it becomes possible to perform the operation even before the onset of hemodialysis. Children, unlike adults, are much less tolerant of hemodialysis because of problems with access to blood vessels. In addition, the possibility of infection in the body decreases due to the absence of the need for blood transfusion.
When performing a kidney transplant from a living related donor, the physician can optimally select the time of the organization of the surgical intervention, and also carefully examine and prepare both the donor and the recipient.
Some physiological abilities of functioning of children's immunity presuppose cautious carrying out of immunosuppressive treatment in the period after the operation is completed. Such circumstances, the peculiarities of some pathologies developing only in childhood and relapsing, force doctors to approach the issue of patient control already mono- more carefully in the first hours after the operation. The same applies to all the time spent on rehabilitation after surgery.