Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis - causes and course
With such a kidney disease as glomerulonephritis, glomerular capillaries are affected, which are responsible for the formation of urine. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is characterized by ubiquitous or focal proliferation of the epithelium in the glomeruli against inflammation.
The glomeruli, together with the Bowman-Shumlyansky capsule and the Henle loop, form the filtering apparatus of the kidney, so any damage in these structures leads to a violation of the filtration and urine formation process, and therefore to the failure of the main function of the kidneys-the regulation of the body's chemical balance.
Causes and mechanism of development of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis
Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis affects children and young men more often, it is, as a rule, the cause of nephrotic syndrome in kidney diseases. This type of glomerulonephritis arises from an imperfect immune response of the body, as a reaction to the action of various viral and bacterial agents. In the blood there are immune complexes - antigen-antibody, they are fixed in the kidney tissues and have a damaging effect on them.
In response, autoantigens are released from the kidney tissue, which are designed to protect tissues from the effects of agents of different nature, but at the same time, autoantigens have a stimulating effect to support immune processes and the further development of the disease.
In general, the mechanism of development of pathology is complex, therefore it is sufficient to understand that due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, an internal struggle of the organism with itself arises. The antibodies produced by it protect the kidneys, but at the same time, they also support the disease and contribute to its progression.
The most common pathology occurs against the background of diseases such as:
- hemorrhagic vasculitis;
- chronic viral hepatitis B;
- Crohn's disease;
- Sjogren's syndrome;
- ankylosing spondylitis;
As a result of kidney damage, there is an expansion and division of podocytes - special cells in the Bowman capsule, which lining the capillaries of the glomeruli. They begin to accumulate intensively and accumulate IgA, IgG, IgM or СЗ-fraction of complement and develop foci of sclerosis.
In general, the complement system is necessary to protect cells and tissues from immune complexes, it consists of proteins with different components( C1, C2, C3. .. C9 and some other factors), which in normal conditions do not pose a danger to the body, but with pathologicalThe complement states are activated by antigen-antibody complexes. Activation of the complement system is a cascade reaction, the key place in which the C3 complement takes place, it is activated by C3-convertase.
How the disease is manifested
Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is almost always manifested as a nephrotic syndrome or has a mixed form. There may be a urinary syndrome in an isolated form or an essential form of the disease.
Nephrotic syndrome manifests as:
- weakness and dizziness;
- lack of appetite;
- visible edema of the naked eye, there may be accumulation of fluid in the cavities of the organs - the heart, lungs, abdomen;
- periodic increase in blood pressure;
- , proteinuria is observed in the urine analysis, in the blood - proteinemia and disproteinemia( violation of the ratio of protein fractions), anemia and an increase in ESR.
- As a complication, nephrotic crisis can occur-abrupt pain in the abdomen, an increase in body temperature, a significant decrease in blood pressure, including collapse, vein thrombosis, including renal veins, changes in the color of the skin.
Urinary syndrome is manifested by thirst, weakness, headache, nausea, increased urine output of changed color( the color of "meat slops"), painful sensations in the lower back.
In the hypertensive form, the cardiovascular system is at the forefront - severe headaches, dizziness, reduced visual acuity, fog before the eyes, cardialgia, shortness of breath, palpitations, high blood pressure figures, ECG changes and eye examination. In the urine, a small number of proteins, erythrocytes, a decrease in the density of urine.
A separate form of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is IgA-nephritis or Berger's disease: it has a relatively unfavorable course and is always accompanied by microhematuria and proteinuria with periodic macrogemuria, provoking the factor - infections of the upper respiratory tract. This pathology is considered at the moment, as a separate nosological form.
In a mixed form, the signs of any of the above variants of the course of the disease are combined.
Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis usually develops 5-7 days after the infectious agent enters the body. In general, the course of the disease is slow, progression of the process and the transition to chronic kidney failure is observed in about half the cases. Among the complications, renal and left ventricular failure, acute circulatory disturbance in the brain, thrombosis should be noted.
How to treat mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis
With unchanged kidney function and isolated hematuria, there is no need for aggressive methods of treatment. In this case, on the first place there is a diet with restriction of salt, protein products. The newly diagnosed disease is subject to inpatient treatment, and subsequent relapse in some cases can be treated on an outpatient basis.
Among medicinal preparations, etiotropic agents can be used to fight the pathogen. To this end, antibiotics are prescribed, taking into account the sensitivity of microflora to them. In turn, antibiotic therapy helps slow the progression of the process, reduces the likelihood of the development of macrogemuria( visible blood in the urine).
In the slow course of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, there is no need to use immunosuppressive drugs in therapy that suppress the body's immune response. If the risk of activation of the process is quite high and high proteinuria is recorded in the urine, then cytotoxic drugs and / or pulse therapy are prescribed, a special treatment protocol consisting of methylprednisolone at 20-30 mg / kg per day, three times every other day. Subsequently, methylprednisolone is administered in a tablet form with a gradual dose reduction.
As a symptomatic therapy used drugs that reduce blood pressure - ACE inhibitors - captopril, enalapril, ramipril;calcium channel blockers - verapamil, dialtiazem. Diuretics - furosemide, spironolactone.
The treatment regimen for this type of glomerulonephritis has been developed sufficiently, so the doctor chooses the most appropriate option, taking into account the progression of the process, the prevailing form of the disease course and the severity of the patient's condition.
The prognosis of the disease is quite good, in most cases it is possible to achieve long-term and stable remission. The appearance in the urine of hematuria, proteinuria, adherence of renal failure and arterial hypertension worsens the prognosis.