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Inflammatory diseases of the kidney: causes, types and their diagnosis

  • Inflammatory diseases of the kidney: causes, types and their diagnosis

    A large group of diseases that occurs with an inflammatory lesion of kidney tissue is called - inflammatory kidney disease. Diseases from this group are most frequent, their frequency is on average 50% of all diseases of the urinary system.

    Children and adults get sick with the same frequency. In women, the inflammatory lesion of this organ proceeds somewhat more frequently, in connection with the anatomical features of the structure of the organs of the urinary system. All inflammatory diseases are very heterogeneous due to and localization of inflammation.

    The causes and mechanism of inflammatory diseases of the kidneys

    There are several groups of causes that cause the development of inflammation in the tissues of the kidneys:

    • infectious causes - bacteria( Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella), fungi( Candida), protozoa( chlamydia);
    • autoimmune diseases - malfunctions in the functioning of the body's immune system can lead to the formation of antibodies that damage the cells of the tissue, leading to inflammation;
    • toxic effects - some chemical compounds can cause destruction of kidney cells and inflammation - salts of heavy metals, alcohol, benzene compounds, inedible fungi;
    • mechanical damage to the tissue of the organ - happens with penetrating wounds of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space and urolithiasis.

    This is important! Inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, which are caused by toxins, occur with rapidly developing acute renal failure, including anuria( absence of urine output), and therefore require emergency medical measures.

    Types of inflammatory diseases

    Depending on the localization of the inflammatory process, the following kidney diseases are distinguished:

    1. nephritis - inflammation of the tissue that seizes the tubular system, the causes of such disease are infections and toxic substances;
    2. glomerulonephritis - the process proceeds in the glomeruli and tubules of the organ, under the influence of an autoimmune response;
    3. pyelonephritis - the inflammation of the calyceal and pelvic system of the kidneys, the pathological process is caused by bacteria and fungi.

    Symptoms and Symptoms

    Inflammation in the kidneys is manifested by common symptoms that are common to all types of inflammation of the kidneys, and specific symptoms that are characteristic of nephritis, pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis.

    Common symptoms of inflammation are:

    • increase in body temperature from low-grade figures( 37.5-37.8 ° C) to high febrile digits( 39.0 ° C and above);
    • general malaise, headache, aches in the joints - signs of an organism intoxication, which accompanies the inflammatory process.

    Specific Symptoms of Inflammatory Kidney Disease:

    • Soft tissue edema around the eyes is a characteristic symptom of glomerulonephritis, swelling is expressed in the morning after sleep, then decreases and disappears during the day;
    • pain in the lumbar region is a sign of inflammation in any of their departments;
    • change in color and clarity of urine - happens with pyelonephritis, urine becomes turbid, rich yellow with a green tint;
    • decrease in the amount of excreted urine - indicates the development of renal failure with glomerulonephritis;
    • complete absence of urine - a sign of the development of acute renal failure, which develops with traumatic or toxic damage of this organ.

    This is important! The development of acute renal failure is a formidable condition that requires immediate measures, namely the purification of blood from metabolic products through hemodialysis.

    Diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the kidneys

    An additional examination includes laboratory and instrumental methods for determining the type of inflammation and the cause.

    Laboratory methods include a number of analyzes:

    1. clinical blood test - indicates the presence of inflammation in the body, while the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation( ESR) and the number of leukocytes with shift of the leukocyte formula to the left increase;
    2. clinical analysis of urine - indirectly allows to determine the cause of inflammation in the kidneys - so the presence of undissolved salts in urine sediment indicates urolithiasis, increased leukocyte counts for bacterial infection, high protein content indicates glomerulonephritis;
    3. bacteriological urine analysis - to determine the type of bacteria that caused inflammation, the urine is inoculated on a special nutrient medium on which the colonies of microorganisms grow, after which they are identified and determine sensitivity to antibiotics in order to adequately select the treatment;
    4. biochemical blood test - the blood serum determines the level of creatinine, urea and uric acid, the increase of which indicates the development of renal failure.

    Instrumental research methods allow to determine the type and severity of structural changes in renal parenchyma:

    1. ultrasound( ultrasound) is the safest and informative method of investigation, shows structural changes in renal parenchyma, changes in its size, and pathological inclusions;
    2. excretory urography is an x-ray method of research, in which a special contrast substance is released into the blood that is secreted by the kidneys, the method is informative, however, its use is limited in connection with the radiation load;
    3. computed tomography is one of the most accurate research methods that visualizes even small structural changes in renal tissue or pathological inclusions.

    First of all, the treatment for such diseases is aimed at eliminating the cause of inflammation, for which antibiotics, antifungal agents, detoxification therapy are used.

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