Malignant neoplasm of kidney: features of manifestation and treatment
Malignant tumor of the kidney is a neoplasm that is characterized by a progressive proliferation of pathologically altered cells and an abnormal development of the organ tissues. Kidney cancer, by its prevalence, occupies about 2-3% of all malignant tumors.
Causes and conditions of the onset of the disease
Among the factors contributing to the development of a malignant tumor of the kidney, are especially common:
- Metabolic disorders, obesity.
- Chronic diseases.
- Prolonged use of certain medicines.
- Action of chemical, radioactive substances.
Diagnosis of a malignant tumor of the kidney
The diagnosis of the disease is carried out using such measures:
- clinical analysis of urine and blood;
- X-ray examination of kidneys using contrast medium( renal angiography);
- kidney biopsy. This method is rarely used, since it is very difficult to collect material for research from such a hard-to-reach organ.
How this disease manifests
This disease has a number of characteristic features, as well as a clinical picture common to all diseases, accompanied by a general intoxication of the body. Patients report weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss. There are headaches, nausea.
There is a temperature increase of 38-39 ° C, especially in the evenings. Patients complain of chills, sweating. There are pains in the lumbar region. Sometimes the pain can be on one side, depending on the affected organ. There is edema, the phenomenon of arterial hypertension.
In the urine can be present blood, protein, salt. Often urine is turbid, with a precipitate in the form of sand. Hematuria is usually not accompanied by painful sensations, according to the patients. The appearance of blood in the urine is associated with the growth of the tumor and the germination of it in the tissue of the organ. In addition, a growing tumor can squeeze the kidney vessels and sprout into their lumen.
One of the important symptoms of a malignant tumor of the kidney is the varicocele on the side of the lesion. The cause of varicose veins of the spermatic cord is due to the growth of the tumor, which squeezes and spreads the surrounding tissues and vessels, sprouts in them.
Also, malignant tumors are characterized by the process of metastasis, when the cells of the main tumor spread throughout the body through lymph and blood flow. In this case, the general intoxication of the body, exhaustion( cachexia) occurs.
Malignant tumors of the kidneys are characterized by metastasis in the organs of the chest, bones, spine. With metastatic bone lesions, strong, persistent pains are observed, not suppressed by anesthetics, sometimes even narcotics.
Methods of treatment of kidney cancer
As a rule, the treatment of malignant tumors of the kidney is to remove the neoplasm, most often together with the affected organ( nephrectomy).Sometimes an organ-preserving treatment is performed when resection is performed( removal of a part of this organ that contains a tumor).It all depends on the extent of the lesion, the condition of the patient, etc.
The main objectives of the surgical intervention are:
- Saving and extending the life of the patient.
- Prevention of the appearance of metastases.
Radical nephrectomy is a fairly effective method of treating malignant tumors in the kidney. This is a cavitary surgery, in which the affected kidney is removed with the surrounding fat tissue, the adrenal gland and regional lymph nodes.
The laparoscopic method is also used to remove a tumor. Laparoscopy has several advantages, since this method is less traumatic for surrounding body tissues, less painful in the postoperative period, more aesthetic. After laparoscopy, there are no stitches, post-operative scars.
The doctor also prescribes chemotherapy, radiation exposure. In addition, long-term recovery of patients requiring special treatment in the form of intravenous infusions, supporting general restorative therapy, is carried out.
There are contraindications to the operation to remove a malignant tumor:
- multiple metastases in the bone, brain, spine;
- severe condition of the patient, exhaustion.
Prognosis for a malignant tumor of the kidney depends on the extent of the body's damage, the presence or absence of metastases, the course of the disease. Early detection of the disease in the early stages can significantly increase the chances of recovery.
How to prevent the disease
An important role is played by:
- timely detection of the disease.
- regular preventive examinations and conduct of ultrasound, CT of kidneys.
- a rational, healthy diet and lifestyle.