How does the excretory function of the kidneys
Kidneys are one of the most important organs in the human body. They realize the excretory function and allow the removal of slags and excess fluid. Excretory function of the kidneys allows daily to allocate a lot of liquid waste in the form of urine.
Excretory function consists in extracting metabolic processes, excess water, etc. from the body by means of urine formation of the final products.the main role in this process is allocated to the release of products of nitrogen metabolism - urea, creatinine, uric acid, the release of amines, acetone bodies, phenols. This process plays a very important role, because the excretion of these substances is mainly carried out by the kidneys, and their excessive accumulation can cause the excretory function to work incorrectly, which causes the development of a toxic state called uremia.
Signs of impaired excretory function in the kidneys
Violation of the excretory function of the kidneys causes a condition such as uremia. Uremia is a pathology characterized by a delay in the products of nitrogen metabolism in the blood stream, disturbance of osmotic homeostasis, water-electrolyte balance due to impaired functioning of the kidney.
Uremia manifests itself as a worsening of the excitability of the nervous system, so the patient may lose consciousness. Also, there is a violation of tissue and external respiration, blood flow, lower body temperature - all this can cause a fatal outcome.
Compensation of the function of the affected kidney through a healthy kidney can not prevent the development of uremia. If the removal of the affected organ is performed, uremia does not develop, because the nephrons that are in the healthy kidney activate their work, their number in total and the number of functioning nephrons increase. In this regard, activation of glomerular filtration, reabsorption in the renal tubules and secretion takes place, which compensate for the work of the removed kidney.
Pathogenesis of the
disorder The impairment of urine formation is the result of a disruption of the following processes:
- The filtration process is the formation in the primary urine kidneys.
- Reabsorption process - transport of liquid, ions, proteins, glucose, amino acids, etc.in the lumen of the capillaries from the lumen of the renal tubules.
- The process of secretion - the transport of fluid, ions and other substances into the lumen of the capillaries.
What happens when the excretory function of
is violated If the excretory function in the kidneys is not realized, all toxins begin to accumulate in the human body, provoking a toxic state or otherwise uremia. With uremia, there is a risk of coma, loss of consciousness, improper blood flow.
This is important!
With the development of kidney failure or uremia in order to resume normal body work, it will be necessary to perform an artificial purification of the blood volume from metabolic products. This method of treatment is called renal hemodialysis.
What is the violation of the secretory excretory function of
? If the secretory excretory function of the kidneys is disrupted, then the following conditions develop in the body:
- deterioration of reabsorption;
- deterioration of filtration;
- improper functioning of the kidneys.
Causes of a disorder
Function disruption occurs due to improper reabsorption in tubules and glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration deteriorates under the influence of the following factors:
- Heart failure - shock or collapse. Shock is characterized by a condition when the blood circulation in the kidney reaches a rate of 50 ml / min.
- Pathogenic factors - diabetes mellitus, necrosis, glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, etc.
The rate and volume of filtration in the renal glomeruli increases due to the elevation of pressure and high tone of arterioles in the glomeruli under the influence of catecholamines. Acceleration of filtration in the glomeruli causes an increase in the permeability of the membrane, a decrease in the tone in the arterioles.
Violation of the secretory excretory function of the kidneys can occur because of too active or, conversely, passive reabsorption. The mechanism of action of reabsorption begins to deteriorate due to genetic enzyme, which subsequently causes acidosis.
This is important! Reabsorption is disrupted due to intoxication in the body, the development of inflammation, dystrophy or due to allergic reactions. The absorption of urea, uric acid, amino acids, etc. is impaired.due to the violation of the functions of the proximal tubules. Also, when the pathological condition occurs, it is difficult to absorb calcium, water, sodium, potassium and magnesium.
How the secretion-excretory function of
is manifested. Also, secretory excretory function can be disturbed under the influence of some kidney diseases and occurs:
- Violation of diuresis. To the violation of diuresis is a decrease in the volume of urine output - oliguria - less than 300-500 ml per day, an increase in the volume of urine-polyuria-more than 2000-2,500 ml per day, complete absence of urine from the body - anuria.
- Disturbance of urinary diversion, namely nocturia, allacturia, pollacturia. Nocturia - it is frequent urination at night, ollakuriya - rare urge to urinate, pollakturiya - frequent urination, regardless of time of day.
- Change in the composition of urine. These include hematuria, leukocyturia, and cylindruria. Leukocyturia is a secretion of white blood cells along with urine. Hematuria is the appearance of blood along with the urine that is separated. Cylindruria is the excretion along with urine of cylinders, which consist of proteins or cells.
In any situation, if you find any abnormalities or pain in the kidneys, it is better to visit a doctor at once to prevent the process from starting and complications that are subsequently difficult to cure.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: