Reduction of the kidney: because of what happens, what is dangerous and how to treat

  • Reduction of the kidney: because of what happens, what is dangerous and how to treat

    There are anomalies in the development and anatomical structure of the kidneys in the form of changes in their number, location( localization) and size. A change in size is more often a decrease in the kidney( hypoplasia), which develops for various reasons and can be either in violation of its function or without it.

    Causes and Mechanism of

    Two groups of causes lead to a decrease in organ size - those that lead to an inborn decrease in the kidney and those that cause this condition after birth.

    Causes of reduction leading to congenital hypoplasia are as follows:

    1. Genetic disorders are the most frequent cause of a decrease, the incidence is about 57%, as a result of the violation of the genes responsible for the division of the cells of the kidney tissue, its inadequate development occurs. Expressed violations in the structure of genes cause renal aplasia - complete absence of an organ, usually this condition is incompatible with life.
    2. Teratogenic factors affecting fetus - ionizing radiation( radiation), chemical compounds( aniline dyes, benzene), some viral infections cause disorders in the genes of kidney cells, which leads to their reduction. Against the background of hypoplasia, it is possible to develop kidney failure in a child after birth. The frequency of this type of reduction is 16%.
    3. Unknown causes - in 27% of cases the exact cause of congenital hypoplasia can not be established.

    Acquired hypoplasia can develop after the birth of a person for the following reasons:

    • Pyelonephritis in early childhood - a bacterial infection, causing inflammation of the kidney tissue, leads to a decrease in its mass.
    • Glomerulonephritis is an autoimmune disease with two-sided lesions. In this case, due to a malfunction in the immune system, antibodies that damage the kidney tissue are developed, a prolonged inflammation develops, which leads to its replacement with a fibrous tissue, which causes a decrease in the kidney parenchyma.
    • Reduction in systolic blood pressure below 70 mm Hg. Art.- is the cause of acute circulatory disorders in the kidneys, which leads to cell death( acute necrosis) and a decrease in their size. This is a dangerous condition, as acute renal failure and intoxication of the body with metabolic products develop.
    • Amyloidosis - as a result of metabolic disorders in the body, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, tuberculosis in kidney cells, a specific protein-polysaccharide substance amyloid is deposited, which leads to cell death. This process affects both kidneys and leads to their reduction and development of chronic insufficiency.

    This is important! Acquired decrease in the kidney in size often affects both organs with the development of renal failure. The congenital process of hypoplasia affects one kidney, while the healthy process performs the function of removing metabolic products from the body, so renal failure may not develop.

    Symptoms of a decrease in the kidney

    If the decrease in the kidney in size is not accompanied by the development of renal failure, it can for a long time not manifest at all clinically. In this case, hypoplasia is detected accidentally by ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity organs due to other diseases.

    When forming kidney failure, the following symptoms appear:

    • swelling of the face and extremities - as a result of reducing the excretion of the fluid, appears in the morning, more on the face( in the form of swelling under the eyes), this is the first symptom to suspect the onset of renal insufficiency;
    • constant thirst and dry mouth due to the accumulation of metabolic products in the body;
    • kidney odor from the mouth is a characteristic symptom, the smell resembles a boiled kidney, its appearance is associated with the accumulation of urea in the body, which must be excreted;
    • a decrease in the daily volume of urine( oliguria);
    • discontinuation of urine( anuria) - a formidable symptom indicating the exclusion of the kidneys, this leads to uremia( accumulation in the blood of exchange products);
    • is a disorder of consciousness from mild drowsiness to its complete absence( coma) - depends on the severity of uremia, since the kidney-derived metabolic products poison the brain, disrupt its function, primarily the cerebral cortex that is responsible for consciousness;
    • soreness when urinating - in the form of burning.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    The most informative method of studying the kidneys, their size and structure, is ultrasound( ultrasound) of the abdominal organs. This method of research is safe for the body, since ultrasound is absolutely harmless. Therefore, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and kidneys can be carried out for pregnant women and young children.

    For the diagnosis of renal failure, a laboratory biochemical blood test is used. The main markers for the development of kidney failure are the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in the blood, which are metabolic products in the body.

    Increased levels of these substances are above the norm, indicating insufficient renal excretory function. Also, a laboratory analysis of blood and urine is mandatory.

    In addition to determining the size of the kidneys, in the case of ambiguous ultrasound results, computed tomography( CT) is used. This is an x-ray method of investigation, a computer tomograph performs a series of layered photographs of the kidneys.

    This is important! Computed tomography is not carried out by everyone, since X-ray radiation is used for the study. First of all, this method of examining the kidneys is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children.

    To determine changes at the tissue level when decreasing, a puncture biopsy is performed-a special needle inserted into the kidney takes a piece of tissue for microscopic examination. The revealed histological changes in the tissue help to establish the cause of organ reduction.

    Complications and tactics of treating kidney hypoplasia

    The only and most formidable complication of kidney hypoplasia is renal failure, which happens to be 2 types:

    1. acute - develops very quickly over a short period of time, the main manifestation is complete absence of urination( anuria);
    2. is chronic - it takes at least six months to develop it, more often this process takes years, characterized by a gradual decrease in the daily volume of urine( oliguria), the appearance of edema on the face and lower limbs.

    The choice of treatment for hypoplasia depends on the presence of kidney failure and the damage to one or both kidneys.

    If one organ is reduced, the other performs sufficient excretory function, then in this case active therapeutic tactics are not performed. In case of kidney failure, transplantation( transplantation) of the diseased organ is performed.

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