Hypoplasia of the kidney: causes, diagnosis and treatment
Hypoplasia of the kidney in modern medicine is called the congenital anatomical pathology of the small kidney. That is, the body is normal in its structure, but its dimensions are not included in the framework of accepted norms and are small. It is interesting that the abnormal dimensions do not prevent the body from operating and functioning as healthy. But strength is not enough.
On a cut, the kidney will have ordinary tissues and structures. It is interesting that hypoplasia, especially in children, often goes in a compartment with other anomalies. For example, doubling of a solitary kidney, abnormal position of the urethra, narrowing of the renal artery, bladder eversion.
There are three types of hypoplasia:
- Simple - this is when the body lacks cups and nephrons;
- Bilateral hypoplasia with a small number of nephrons;
- Hypoplasia with dysplasia;
Why kidney hypoplasia occurs
Hypoplasia of the right kidney or left has the same causes. The main cause of this disease is the insufficient mass of the metanephrogenic blastema with normal ingrowth and the inducing effect of the methanephros flow. In this case, all nephrons have a classical structure and are able to function, just their number is 50% less than normal. Surprisingly, the contralateral kidney will have more nephrons. Their general function will not be affected by a single drop.
That's interesting! Hypoplasia of the kidney occurs in 0.09-0.16% of cases!
Hypoplasia in the child appears during the period of intrauterine development. Such a violation can be associated with both external and internal factors.
The main possible causes of this disease( internal factors):
- Primary nedorazvitie, which is associated with a genetic predisposition;
- Pyelonephritis, developing in utero or in children before reaching one-year-old age;
- Secondary inflammatory processes in the kidneys;
- Fetal position anomalies;
- Deviations( intrauterine);
- Insufficient volume of amniotic fluid;
- Thrombosis of the renal veins, which lead to the underdevelopment of this organ.
- Infectious diseases of a pregnant woman;
Hypoplasia of the left kidney or right, external factors:
- Smoking of a pregnant woman;
- Injuries, in particular - abdominal contusions;
- Alcohol abuse;
- Ionizing radiation;
- External hyperthermia( stays in abnormally hot conditions);
Diagnosis of this disease
As a rule, differential diagnosis is performed, it is done with dysplasia and wrinkled kidney. The normal structure of the renal vessels and all systems is evidence of hypoplasia. To diagnose this disease in modern medicine, it will be sufficient to perform an MRI or MSCT.
But until now the most common method of research is ultrasound. Survey data can reveal the size of the kidney and determine if it is less than usual. Also, the patient will have less than six calyces( in healthy 8 or more), a changed structure of the pelvis. In all cases, there will be an underdevelopment of the renal artery.
In the absence of complications, the structure of the small kidney always corresponds to the age of the patient. It is important to differentiate the congenital disease from secondary atrophic processes.
Treatment of kidney hypoplasia: complex diagnosis and various effects
Symptoms of hypoplasia are almost absent. Therefore, this disease is considered a complex pathology. It is difficult to identify and usually it is diagnosed late enough. Treatment, as a rule, is determined depending on the type of pathology, as well as on the condition of normal kidney.
In determining the pathology at an early age, especially in the case of bilateral hypoplasia, possible attempts to restore and adjust the water-electrolyte balance. If bilateral hypoplasia is pronounced, the child of the part dies. Children with such a severe form of this pathology live 8-15 years.
With regard to the treatment of less dangerous unilateral hypoplasia, the course of treatment is chosen strictly individual. The doctor assesses the overall health of the individual patient and, depending on the indicators, takes specific steps. The most often prescribed therapeutic measures, which are also prescribed for patients with a single kidney.
Special treatment is not required if a healthy kidney is able to perform all its functions in full. If there are any suspicions about the development of other kidney diseases in order to prevent them, doctors will take all measures.
Patients of adult age are shown the removal of a diseased kidney. If a severe bilateral pathology is observed, this is an indication for the complete removal of both abnormal kidneys. In this case, a person is transferred to hemodialysis and a donor organ is transplanted.
Described disease is extremely difficult. It interferes with the normal functioning of the child, and then the adult person. To avoid the development of this rare, but complex pathology, during pregnancy, a woman should behave very carefully. Refuse completely from smoking and alcohol, eat right, visit a doctor regularly. This is the direct case when the child's health depends on the behavior and habits of the mother that is pregnant with them.