How is hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis manifested?
Glomerulonephritis is a pathology affecting the renal glomeruli and arising as an independent disease or supplementing some systemic pathologies, such as hemorrhagic vasculitis, endocarditis infectious, systemic lupus erythematosus.
Hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis is a disease with many symptoms. When detecting proteinuria, hematuria, swelling, high blood pressure, the diagnosis is not difficult. With the diagnosis of hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis, hematuria is found in 88%, puffiness in 82%, hypertension in 73%.The remaining signs are less constant, namely: pain in the lumbar region - 47%, headache - 35%, increase in the volume of the liver - 35%, etc.
In general, infection with glomerulonephritis occurs because of an excessive response of immunity to infectious antigens. In addition, autoimmune forms of the disease are known, when the pathology of the kidneys is formed due to the destruction of the cells of the body by the antibodies.
In the development of glomerulonephritis, antigen-antibody complexes accumulate in the capillaries of the renal glomeruli. This contributes to the deterioration of blood flow, as well as the process of urine production. In this regard, the body delays water, metabolic products and salt, provoking the emergence of kidney failure.
pathology The formation of hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis correlates with acute or chronic pathologies of various organs and has a mainly streptococcal nature. The most frequent causes of the disease are:
- scarlet fever;
- purulent lesions of the skin.
Also, the cause of the development of pathology can become measles, SARS, chicken pox. To causal factors should be attributed and hypothermia of the body.
Symptomatic of hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis
The acute course of the disease develops due to the defeat of the body by streptococcal infection and it begins, as a rule, three weeks after scarlet fever, sore throat, abscess of the tooth, face. First of all, a person complains of a general malaise and indeterminate pain in the kidneys. Usually, when this diagnosis is made, there is swelling in the face, dyspnea, severe headache and nausea with vomiting. The doctor makes the diagnosis, based on blood pressure and changes in urine analysis. The disease affects more children and adolescents.
With a strong exacerbation in the urine appears blood, a small amount of urine is released and even a complete complete cessation of urine flow into the bladder.
Blood in the urine can appear for several weeks, and with a microscopic examination, the erythrocytes in the urine are diagnosed for several months after full recovery.
Another strongly pronounced symptom of hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis is an increase in blood pressure that is characterized by a moderate increase in diastolic pressure and a strong increase in systolic pressure.
Simultaneously with the above signs, bradycardia manifests itself - a decrease in the frequency of cardiac contractions. Expansion of the heart is formed after a few days from the onset of the disease.
The next no less important sign of pathology is the formation of edema, which occurs not only on the sloping parts of the body. The edematous fluid is enriched with protein in comparison with that in the development of ordinary nephrosis.
In severe cases, ECG changes occur. Symptoms that predominate in this or that case are classified into several forms of hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis:
- is a classic form with manifestation of urinary symptoms, edema and increased blood pressure;
- Renal form - it is characterized by pathological changes in the urine and increased blood pressure;
- peripheral shape;
- glomerulonephritis with nephrotic constituents - proteinuria is the leading symptom, the rest of the symptoms manifest themselves moderately.
The treatment of hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis should be performed in a hospital. In this case, the patient shows compliance with diet number 7 and bed rest. For patients, antibacterial treatment is organized, correction of the work of immune forces through non-hormonal and hormonal drugs is performed.
Treatment also includes anti-inflammatory therapy and symptomatic therapy that helps to get rid of swelling and restore normal pressure values.