We understand what is dangerous acute glomerulonephritis
Acute glomerulonephritis is characterized by a sharp inflammatory process, localized in small vessels of the glomeruli of the kidneys, at the site of blood filtration and the formation of primary urine. This process takes place, as a rule, on both sides, and occurs most often in patients under the age of 40 years and in children up to 10-12 years. Men in statistics suffer from this disease more often than women.
Forms of acute glomerulonephritis
The disease occurs suddenly and lasts for 10-15 days. If the duration of the disease exceeds this time, they speak of a subacute or chronic form of the disease. By the nature of the disease, the disease is divided into acute, subacute and chronic forms. For reasons, the disease can be:
- Primary - when the inflammatory process is localized in the kidneys and is not caused by systemic diseases of the body.
- Secondary - when first in the body there are other inflammatory diseases, and glomerulonephritis develops later( as a complication).
- Idiopathic - when the causes of the disease are unknown.
The degree of damage to the area of the glomeruli can be localized and diffuse. Acute diffuse glomerulonephritis is a disease that occurs against a background of reduced immunity. In frequency, among other forms, diffuse glomerulonephritis occurs most often.
Causes of acute glomerulonephritis
Among all causes of the disease and provoking factors, the following are distinguished:
- Infectious-immune factors. In general, the disease develops after angina, tonsillitis, measles, scarlet fever and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Of these, the most aggressive and frequently occurring is Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Also, the disease can occur after vaccination( with reduced immunity), especially in children.
- Noninfectious factors. These include such causes as sudden and severe hypothermia, alcohol intoxication, the taking of some nephrotoxic medicines, and poisoning with chemicals.
- Genetic factors( hereditary predisposition).
Symptoms and signs of acute glomerulonephritis
Acute glomerulonephritis in most cases is accompanied by a triad of characteristic symptoms - the appearance of edema, high blood pressure and changes in the composition of urine. Each of these symptoms has its own characteristics and characteristics. So, the symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis are as follows:
- Osteal syndrome manifests itself in almost 90% of all cases of the disease. Edema can be small and significant. Localized edema on the legs, abdomen and face, and on the face they are visible mainly in the morning. In some cases, patients notice a rapid increase in weight( 15-20 kg in 3 weeks), which may also be a result of water retention in the body. The face of the patients acquires a characteristic appearance and is called the face of a nephritic.
- Arterial hypertension, the figures of which usually do not exceed 160/100 mm Hg, but the pressure does not decrease, despite the use of antihypertensive drugs. At the same time, a rare heartbeat( bradycardia) develops, which is accompanied by cardiac insufficiency. Elevated blood pressure can cause disorders from the central nervous system - nausea, vomiting, headaches, hearing and vision impairment, increased excitability.
- Changes in urine - there is a protein and traces of blood, which is normal in urine does not happen. The amount of protein can reach up to 10-20 g / l, and the number of red blood cells varies from 10-15 in the field of view to the macrohematuria. In addition, pus may appear in the urine, and the amount of urine released sharply decreases.
The clinical picture in acute glomerulonephritis in children differs little from that in adults - the same symptomatology and triad of symptoms. But unlike adults, in 90% of all cases acute glomerulonephritis in children develops against the background of childhood infections or after vaccination.
That is why it is so important to sanitize all the foci of infection and to treat infectious diseases in time in infants, because the immunity of the child is not completely formed. It should be noted that children in infancy are virtually immune to glomerulonephritis.
Treatment and prevention of acute glomerulonephritis
Treatment of acute glomerulonephritis is carried out only in a hospital, under the supervision of a doctor and provided that a special diet is observed. At the same time, the consumption of salt and salty, smoked, pickled products is sharply limited, which quickly leads to normalization of water release and elimination of edema.
Such patients in the early days are prescribed "sugar" days( up to 500 grams of sugar per day), with the help of which a diet without sodium and its salts is provided. It can be sweet tea, sweets, other sweets, watermelons, sweet fruit juices, potatoes and other foods with high carbohydrate content. In a small amount you can consume fats and proteins( eggs, cottage cheese).
Antibacterial therapy is performed in the presence of a foci of infection, and if ineffectiveness and prolonged course of the disease, tonsils are usually removed as a source of infection. The nephrotic form of the disease shows the administration of hormones( prednisolone and dexamethasone).At the same time, hypotensive and diuretics are prescribed.
The prognosis for acute glomerulonephritis is mainly favorable, as the clinic manifests itself with severe symptoms and serves as an excuse for immediate treatment to a specialist. Of course, there is a high risk( up to 30% of all cases) of transition of the acute form to chronic, with the development of complications and a prolonged course of the disease in the future.
To prevent this from happening, you need to contact the doctor in a timely manner and in time to eliminate all the causes that can trigger the onset of the disease. People who have undergone acute glomerulonephritis are subject to follow-up and annual screening for prevention.
Prevention measures are reduced to supporting the immune system, preventing infection of the body and early treatment of acute infectious diseases. Also, one should not easily dress to reduce the risk of sudden hypothermia. People with allergic conditions should be treated in time for the underlying disease and not to carry out seasonal or preventive vaccines.