• Heating of the protected ground

    There are three main ways of heating the protected soil - solar, technical and biological.

    Solar heating is the most common and cheapest, since solar radiation is the most efficient source of energy. Having reached the surface of the soil and plants, it turns into thermal energy, which, thanks to the glass roof or translucent film, remains in the greenhouse. However, on cold, cloudy days, especially at night, the temperature under the film may be below the optimum limit. In order to prevent this and maintain the temperature at the level, additional technical heating is also installed in the greenhouse, also called emergency, as it is used at a critical drop in temperature: these are furnaces of different systems and electric heaters. Solar heating finds the widest application in the cultivation of early vegetables and seedlings in the open field, as well as in hotbeds, spring greenhouses. A lot of solar heat enters the winter greenhouses, especially on clear, sunny days.

    Bookmarking biofuel in a warm greenhouse

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    1. The traditional bookmark for a warm greenhouse is manure, which serves as a natural source of ash and heating. The manure harvested from autumn is piled or piled up, compacted, from is covered with peat, straw or sawdust from above and covered with a film. The edges of the film are pressed with stones so that the wind does not blow it away.

    Technical heating is suitable for small greenhouses - an area of ​​about 15 m2.In this case, most often use stove or water heating, less often electric heaters.

    Biological heating is based on the decomposition of organic materials, thanks to which heat is released in an amount sufficient for the entire vegetative period of the plants.

    A traditional biofuel has long been considered horse manure, which very quickly heats up( within a week) to 60-70 ° C, and then maintains the optimum temperature in the root layer of the soil during the growing season. However, most often you have to use any kind of manure - cow, sheep, rabbit. In comparison with horse they are colder and heavier, they warm up slowly, the temperature of their burning is lower and lasts not so long. When using cow and pig manure to it, it is necessary to mix the cut straw and other materials that produce looseness, for example sawdust or peat.

    Also used as biofuel is woody leaves.

    2. In the foundation pit of the greenhouse biofuel is laid in layers: the bottom is laid with sawdust or straws to improve the thermal conditions, then a layer of manure, peat or sawdust on top of it, which absorb the ammonia emitted, and the last layer is poured on the soil mixture into which the seeds are sown and plantedplants

    In pure form, they give a low temperature, it is better to mix cow or pig manure( at least 25%) 9632;They are harvested from the fall: they are stacked and sprinkled with earth on top of them, so that they do not scatter. As biofuel apply and weakly decomposed peat, adding to it up to 30% of the mullein.

    You can use chopped straw with the addition of 0.6% urea solution. Straw is well mixed and after saturation is piled. Manure or other biofuels harvested from autumn should be properly stored. The best known cold storage method, which protects biofuel from excessive overheating. At the same time, the manure is stacked in a pile of 2 m high and sealed with shovels so that it does not decompose prematurely. Then it is covered with peat, straw, grass, leaves, sawdust, if the pile is small, it is recommended to cover it from above with film or tarpaulin.

    Preheat the biofuel a week before laying it in the greenhouse, interrupting, shaking it with forks in loose piles up to 2 m high. To get the manure quickly heated, hot stones, quicklime, or light a fire are placed in the middle of the heap, covering it with a sheet of iron. When coals appear, manure is thrown onto the sheet of iron, leaving a course for traction. Heated manure gives off a smell of ammonia, the temperature inside the pile reaches 30-70 ° C, depending on the type of biofuel.

    In the middle of March, it is necessary to start putting in order the greenhouses, clearing their excavations from snow and ice, and then from the soil and the overgrown manure.

    At the bottom of the greenhouse pits or trenches of greenhouses put sawdust, and when using cow and pig manure lay a brushwood layer of 10 cm to improve thermal conditions. Soil and humus mix and add to the collar, using them in the future as organic fertilizer. Frames and parabens are disinfected with a 10% solution of caustic soda or a weak solution of bleach. When the entire stack of biofuel is heated, it is once again friable and after 2-3 days they are filled with greenhouses. Biofuel is spread with forks, cold manure is placed on the bottom( from the edges of the pile), and then hotter. Burned( raw) discarded.

    Biofuel is placed in a greenhouse with a layer of 15-20 cm, carefully adjusting it along the edges and corners, so that there are no voids. Then it is covered with frames and mats, and in 3-4 days, when it warms up and settles, level and sprinkle with lime-pushenkoy. On top put a layer of peat or sawdust, which absorb the ammonia emitted. Only then pour the soil mixture in a layer of 10-12 cm, into which seeds are planted or planted.