Jul 05, 2018
General information: the homeland of aubergines - the tropics of Southeast Asia. In China and India, this culture is known for many millennia. In our country it is grown recently and mainly in southern regions. In the central zone of Russia, aubergine is bred only in a greenhouse. Eggplant is a perennial herbaceous plant. The height of the bush is 25-150 cm. The leaves are large, entire or indented, located on the stalk alternately. The root system is strongly branched, penetrating mainly to a depth of 30-40 cm, sometimes up to 1 m. The flowers are large, drooping, collected in a brush. The color of the corolla is usually blue-violet of varying intensity. Fruit - berry from a cylindrical serpentine to a spherical shape, 15-17 cm long.
Requirements: requires more heat than tomato and pepper. The optimum temperature for germination of seeds is 22-24 ° C, and for growth and development of plants - 22-30 ° C.The plants are especially sensitive to a decrease in temperature during the formation of buds and flowering. High demands on eggplant and moisture. The best soil moisture for its growth is 80
Eggplant is a light-loving plant of a short day, so growing young plants on a 12-14-hour day accelerates fruit formation.
The most suitable soils for aubergine are light, structural, well-fertilized. With a lack of nitrogen, the growth of vegetative organs slows down, with its excess this process is delayed to the detriment of fruit formation. The lack of potassium is expressed in the suspension of growth and the appearance of brown spots on the edges of the leaves and fruits.
Ingredients: contains many salts of calcium, iron, potassium, as well as vitamins - C, group B, PP and carotene.
Cultivation: Because of the slow growth and high heat demand, the eggplant is grown in seedlings, and since it does not tolerate the transplant, it is better to grow the seedlings in cubes 6x6 cm in size. The nutrient mixture is prepared from humus, turf and mullein( 8: 2: 1) with the addition of 1 pail mixture: 10 grams of urea, 40-50 - superphosphate and 4-5 g of potassium salt.3-4 days before sowing, the cubes are densely placed in a greenhouse with a pound thickness of 5-6 cm and moisturized. In each cube 3-4 seeds are sown, they are covered with a layer of soil 1-2 cm and watered.
Donetsk yielding - early maturing: from the shoots to the removal of fruits takes 110-115 days. The plant forms up to 15 fruits weighing 140-160 g. Fruits are cylindrical, dark purple, white flesh.
Donskoy 14 - is one of the best varieties;mid-ripening( from sowing to maturing 120-140 days).The fruits are elongated-pear-shaped, violet with a brown tinge, weight 150-350 g. Flesh white, dense, used mainly for cooking caviar.
Simferopol - medium-term( from seedling to collection of fruits 120-125 days).Fruits are oval, large, weighing 300-400 g. Dark purple with a noticeable luster. Cream pulp with a slight greenish tinge. Touring 6 - mid-season. Fruits are oval or cylindrical, up to 12-17 cm long and weighing more than 120 g. Flesh white with a greenish tint.
The medium-ripening varieties Bulgarian 87, Long violet 239 and Dnestrovets, with dark purple fruit with tender flesh were also widely spread. The varieties of Gardabani local, Yerevan, Kipchak local, and also medium-sized Adonis, Almaz, Albatross and Bataysky are not bad.
2 weeks before planting, the seedlings begin to harden: reduce watering and remove the frames. To prevent the appearance of fungal diseases 5-10 days before planting, the plants are sprayed with a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate( 50 g per 10 liters of water).At the time of planting, plants should have 5-6 true leaves, a thick stem and a well developed root system. The period of planting seedlings in the southern regions - the end of the first - the beginning of the second decade of May.
Seedlings, not grown in cubes, are chosen with a good clod of earth and planted to a depth of 7-8 cm or 1.5 cm deeper than it grew. The row spacing is 60-70 cm, the distance between plants in the row is 25-30 cm.
Care: during the growing season, the plants are watered every 7-10 days, followed by loosening the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm. The first feeding is carried out 10-15 days after planting the seedlings in the soil with urea( 100-150 g per 10 m2), the second - 3 weeks after the first superphosphate solution( 150 g per 10 l) and urea( 100 g per 10 l).To strengthen the branching, the apex of the stems is plucked at a height of 25-30 cm. When properly formed, the plants should have 3-4 lateral shoots with 5-6 fruits arranged evenly. The rest of the flowers and ovaries are removed. Watered 2-4 times during vegetation to 20-25 l / m2 to maintain normal moisture, without overmoistening and dry soil.
The aphid appeared on the leaves can be washed off with water or planted on the leaves of ladybirds. Adhesive tapes come up against the white fly. Regular airing of the greenhouse prevents the appearance of gray mold.
Harvesting: the first eggplant fruit is taken 22-35 days after flowering, then regularly every 5-6 days. Cut the fruit with a knife or a pruner, as the eggplant has a wooden stalk. Complete the collection before the onset of frost. Fruits of eggplant can be stored in a dry room for a month.
Usage: aubergines are widely used in home cooking. Especially there are many ways to prepare eggplant caviar. Eggplants are also stewed, baked, stuffed, salted and marinated. In addition to a unique taste and high nutritional qualities, the fruits have medicinal properties: they counteract the development of atherosclerosis and contribute to a decrease in the cholesterol content in the blood.