Useful and medicinal properties of wormwood bitter, or real
Mar 29, 2018
The generic name of wormwood comes from the Greek arterites - healthy due to the medicinal properties of plants of this genus. Specific definition consists of two Greek words: a - not and psinthos - pleasure, pleasure, A plant that does not give pleasure in connection with its bitter taste.
Botanical description. Perennial herbaceous plant with a short rhizome, passing into the root root. From the rhizome leaves several upright, slightly ribbed, upper branching stems, reaching a height of 50-125 cm. The leaves are regular, the lower ones are long-petiolate, triangular-cordate in shape, three-peri-divided in shape, double-articular divides, and upper - pinnate and oblong-lanceolate;the apexes of segments dulled. The stems and leaves on both sides are silvery-gray, since they bear the hairs pressed. Flowers yellow, small, collected in spherical baskets, which form a paniculate inflorescence. Fruit - brownish, oblong achene without a tuft. The plant has a strong odor and a very bitter taste.
Blossoms in July-August;fruits ripen in August - September.
Geographical spread. Grows near housing, roads, on the borders, vacant lots, on the coastal slopes, in the young gardens, less often in the pine forests. It occurs in the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, in the eastern part of Central Asia and in the middle part of Siberia. The main areas of blanks are in the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, Stavropol Territory, Voronezh, Sverdlovsk and other areas of the RSFSR.It is widespread in all areas. It grows like a weed on deposits, steppes, steam fields, in crops, along roads, gardens, orchards, near habitation.
Collection and drying of .Collect sagebrush at the beginning of flowering plants, cutting with a knife or sickle tops no longer than 25 cm without coarse parts of the stem. Blanks at the gathering sites alternate after 1 year. Less often harvest leaves of wormwood, tearing off radical and large cauline leaves before flowering in June. Delayed with the collection of raw materials, especially grass, it is impossible, because later the flowers lose their yellow color - they become brown, and brown leaves appear on the leaves, besides they lose their natural color during drying.
Dry raw materials in the shade, in attics, under canopies or in dryers at a temperature of 25-30 °, often turning until the stems and petioles of the leaves become brittle. When drying, and especially when packing raw materials, the respiratory tract should preferably be protected with respirators, since dust leaves a long feeling of bitterness in the mouth.
Medicinal raw materials. Finished raw materials are of two types. Grass of Artemisia( Herba Absinthii) contains the tips of leafy flower stems no longer than 25 cm. The stems are slightly ribbed and end with a sprawling complex whisk, the twigs of which bear small globular baskets 2.5-4 mm in diameter with yellow tubular flowers. Receptacle convex, covered with scaly films. Upper bracts sessile, oblong, entire, lower on peduncle - tripartite and sometimes doubly articulate or even dissected. On top of the leaves are greenish-gray, from below - silvery-gray. The second type of raw material is a sheet of wormwood( Folium Absinthii).
The smell of both types of raw materials is strong, fragrant, peculiar, the taste is spicy-bitter.
GOST 3558-75 admits in both types of raw materials: moisture is not more than 13%;ash in the grass is not more than 3%;and in leaves no more than 4%;darkened parts not more than 3%;stems more than 3 mm in diameter( in the grass) up to 3%;shredded parts passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm, not more than 5% in the grass and not more than 3% in the leaves;organic impurities in the grass not more than 2%, and in leaves no more than 1%;mineral impurity in the grass is no more than 1.5%, and in leaves no more than 1%.The content of extractives extracted by 70% alcohol should be at least 20% in the grass and at least 25% in the leaves.
The organic impurity includes parts of other, non-poisonous plants, including other species of wormwood. Most commonplace can occur wormwood, or blackberry, Artemisia vulgaris L., which forms a plant community( phytocenosis) with bitter wormwood and other plants. This plant leaves the leaves naked, green, but after drying, they become dark green, almost black, below - gray. Segments with a sharp-toothed tip. The flowers are reddish, collected in oval baskets.
Chemical composition. The herb of wormwood contains from 0.5 to 2% of essential oil of blue-green color, which includes sesquiterpene alcohols( absintine, anabsintin, artabsintin) and 7 sesquiterpene lactones, thujil alcohol, hydrocarbons( bizaboleny, pienene, cadinene, fellandren, caryophyllene, sepinene), ketone thujone, monocyclic ketolactones, etc. Flavonoid artemisetin and others, tannins, lignans, organic acids, carotene, a small amount of vitamins C, B6, etc. are also contained.
The leaves have a similar chemical composition.
Action and application of .The bitter taste of wormwood is due to the presence of sesquiterpenes. These substances irritate the endings of the taste buds in the oral cavity and reflexively enhance the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract. Essential oil stimulates peristalsis. In addition, increased bile secretion. It is used as an agent that stimulates appetite and improves digestion in gastritis with both increased and decreased acidity, with liver and gall bladder diseases and anemia. It is also prescribed to patients after severe operations, prolonged debilitating diseases as appetizing.
Wormwood is an ancient folk remedy. Widely recommended aboveground part of the plant with renal stone disease, erosion of the uterus and as an abortifacient in the form of baths, in the form of an alcohol extract for stomach cancer, rectum and uterus;decoction, etc.
Decoction of the root or the whole plant is used for nerve diseases, as an anticonvulsant, for epilepsy, neurasthenia, fright, meningitis and other nervous diseases. The root, infused with white wine, is recommended for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and for increasing appetite. Effective for tuberculous meningitis.
External infusion of grass is used for inflammation of mucous membranes, for the treatment of ulcers that do not heal for a long time;in a decoction they bathe children with rickets.
Fresh grass in crushed form is applied to the wounds for faster healing.
Broth on wine: 20 g per 200 ml of white wine;cook for 10 minutes, adding 1-2 tsp honey in a still boiling broth;drink half a glass and more on an empty stomach as a general restorative for pulmonary tuberculosis.
Decoction on beer: 30 g of root per 0.5 liters of beer;boil 5 minutes, you can make a decoction and water( on beer better), drink with epilepsy, as well as convulsions and convulsions of a different kind.
Broth: 20 g per 200 ml;1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.
Tincture of 10%: 15-20 drops 3 times a day. Powder with sugar: 1 teaspoon 3 times a day.
Take in the form of a tincture - Tinctura Absinthii for 20-30 drops per reception and infusion of 10 grams of raw material for 200 ml of water for 1 tablespoon before eating. Tincture of wormwood is a part of the gastric drops - Guttae Stomachicae( Guttae Gastricae).
It has been established that bitterness( absintin) has the ability to stimulate the function of the digestive glands, the secretion of bile and pancreatic juice, and increase the secretion of gastric juice. The effect of this, like other bitterness, is due to an increase in excitability to food irritants. Essential wormwood oil in its excitatory effect on the central nervous system is similar to camphor.
In scientific medicine the practical use of wormwood and its preparations have been found as bitterness for the excitement of appetite, as a carminative and laxative. For this purpose, Artemisia is appointed in the form of infusions from grass, tinctures or extracts, as well as in the cholagogue, appetizing and carminative tea.
In the Middle Ages, the herb of Artemisia was considered one of the most curative and was used in the form of infusion in women's diseases to strengthen menstruation;fresh grated grass, infused with wine, as an abortifacient, as well as with swelling of the intestine with gases, as a diuretic and as an antidote for some poisoning.
In folk medicine, Artemisia is used as a stimulant appetite, which regulates the functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in conjunction with the root of the aura, as well as choleretic, diuretic, analgesic, soothing, and disinfecting. Decoction or tincture on vodka is used in the absence of appetite, pulmonary tuberculosis, gastric diseases( gastritis, ulcer, indigestion), dysentery, with fetid odor from the mouth and nose, fever, malaria.
The plant is recommended for jaundice, liver, bladder and kidney diseases, edema and spleen diseases.
The use of decoction inside and outside( in the form of enemas with the addition of garlic) is recommended for round worms and pinworms. More information on the use of wormwood with worms, see here.
Drugs from wormwood are used as well as a lotion for the eyes.
Bitter wormwood has a calming effect( especially oil from seeds) with insomnia, constant fainting, convulsive vomiting, spasms in the abdomen, and shortness of breath. In the last two cases, the herb of this plant is successfully applied.
Grass, used externally, acts as a disinfectant, an analgesic and a bruising-reducing agent. Fresh juice from the grass quickly stops bleeding, disinfects the tissue and tightens the wounds.
Fresh, crushed leaves are effective for severe bruises and are an indispensable analgesic in case of dislocation. Favorable action wormwood has a bitter effect with pain caused by stretching the tendons.
As a disinfecting external remedy, wormwood bitter is used against blood poisoning - it rinses wounds, with ulcers and chronic ulcers, as well as with bruises, joint diseases.
When biting insects, it is recommended to drink broth or diluted tincture( in the ratio 1:10).
Wormwood mixed with thyme creeping, or Bogorodskaya grass( 1 part wormwood on 4 parts of Bogorodskaya grass) in the form of a decoction( 15 g per 200 ml) is used for the treatment of alcoholism( 1 tablespoon 3 times a day, the duration of treatment -2-3 months).With liver diseases, wormwood is consumed with bitter sage( 1: 5 ratio) in powder form.
An infusion of wormwood in the form of enemas can be designated for the expulsion of round worms.
Wormwood tincture is difficult to drink because of its very bitter taste. It is recommended to prepare tincture, extract( 25-50%) or wine: dry leaves of wormwood - 30 g, alcohol 60 ° - 60 ml, white wine - 100 ml. Infuse on alcohol for 24 hours, then add wine, after 10 days drain.
Take no more than 100 grams per day, as in this preparation in the essential oil is a toxic substance and the use in large doses can lead to the appearance of convulsions such as epilepsy.
Tincture( available at the pharmacy) 20%: 15-20 drops, or 1: 5 on 70 "alcohol
Water extract( available at the pharmacy): 25 g or 1 teaspoon brew as tea in 2glasses of boiling water Take the extract on a spoon 3 times a day, tea - 1/4 cup 30 minutes before eating
Appetizing tea: mix 8 parts of wormwood and 2 parts of yarrow, 1 teaspoon of the mixture to brew in twocups of boiling water and take a quarter cup three times a day
Decoction: 10 g per 200 ml, 1-2 teaspoons 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals
Powder: one pinch( 0.2-0, 5 g) 3 times a day.
Ointment from achenes: mix 1 part of pounded achenes and 4 parts of Provencal oil( if there is no sunflower oil), insist for 8 hours, use 1-2 drops( on sugar)
Blend for enema( with pinworms): mix wormwood2 cups) with broth of the average head of garlic( 1 glass).