Hemangioma in adults: photos, symptoms and treatment, causes
Most often it appears in the first years of life, while the rate of cell division of the tumor does not correlate with the growth of the child, but depends on hereditary and hormonal factors.
Most often, such a tumor affects the skin, it can germinate into the subcutaneous fatty tissue;less often - occurs in the parenchymal organs( liver, kidneys), can even develop in the bones.
Treatment of such a tumor is only surgical;in certain cases, hemangiomas can spontaneously regress.
Where is hemangioma manifested?
This benign tumor occurs in 80% of cases in the form of a single structure, few of these elements are observed more rarely.
The preferred location of hemangioma in adults is the neck and head region. Tumors are located on:
- forehead areas;
- hair growth zone;
- near the nose( in the root or tip area);
- cheeks( even on their inner side).
The second favorite place of origin of the tumor can be called the genital area. This localization often leads to a complicated course of hemangiomas - their infection, ulceration and bleeding. Often a vascular lesion affects the legs or hands. Sometimes they can be visualized( on ultrasound or CT scan) in the internal organs or bones of a person.
In 90% of cases, hemangioma on the skin is detected already in the first days of a child's life, less often - after the first weeks of his extrauterine existence.
Causes of the occurrence of
Scientists have not been able to fully establish the causes of hemangiomas in humans. Congenital hemangiomas may appear due to impaired fetal development, as well as excessive growth of vascular tissue. Due to the pathology of this tissue, it leads to an increase in the amount of itself.
Modern medicine does not have the right instruments to accurately determine at which stage of development of the fetus these disorders occur. Now, only the stillborn infants, as well as the fruits resulting from abortion, are to be examined.
In adults, the causes of hemangiomas can be caused by such predisposing factors:
- internal diseases, which give impetus to vascular disorders;
- excessive exposure to sunlight, due to UV irradiation.
Symptoms of hemangioma in adults
Hemangioma of the skin appears at first as a red or cyanotic stain of irregular shape that is slightly elevated above the skin level.
In some cases, you can see a point in the center of the tumor from which the network of small vessels diverges, or one enlarged vascular branch.
Hemangioma is characterized by fairly rapid growth. In some cases, it can occupy large areas of the body, being a great cosmetic drawback for a person.
There are several types of hemangiomas for their localization and manifestation of symptoms:
- simple: is on the skin;
- cavernous: has a subcutaneous localization;
- combined: there are cutaneous and subcutaneous parts;
- is mixed: it consists of several different fabrics.
- 1) Capillary: their base is capillaries lined with a single layer of endotheliocytes( cells lining the inner shell of the vessels).Some capillaries can be in a normal state, others - in the asleep. Looks hemangioma as a soft formation of red or blue-purple, with a smooth surface. It has clear boundaries, and when pressed on it - it pale for a while. Such a hemangioma can sprout into the underlying tissues. In 5-6% of cases in childhood can occur an independent cure for this type of hemangioma.
- 2) Cavernous. They consist of vascular cavities separated by septa and having different forms. Often in such cavities( cavities) the blood coagulates, the formed thrombus sprouts with connective tissue. It looks like a soft multi-lobed red tumor, which is most often located on the head or neck. When pressed, it falls off, and when crying, crying, coughing - increases and strains.
- 3) Cellular: their basis is angioblast cells. Because of its immaturity, the tumor is invasive, sprouting into the underlying tissues. It is this hemangioma that appears in the first days after the birth of a child. It has a soft consistency and a red color;is located on the skin and mucous membranes, has a tendency to peripheral growth.
- 4) Combined hemangiomas( capillary-cavernous).They consist of cavernous spaces, which are confined to endothelial cells and immature capillary structures.
- 5) Racemic. Their basis is crimped thick-walled vessels. The tumor looks very ugly;located on the head or neck.
- 6) The intermuscular vascular tumor( can be capillary, arteriovenous or cavernous) grows not only in the muscle or tendon, but also sprouts into the underlying subcutaneous tissue and skin.
There are also hemangiomas of internal organs, which have a latent flow, to be detected accidentally. A characteristic symptom of such a tumor is the bleeding from it. Thus, the hemangioma of the rectum may manifest as the release of blood from the anus;haemangioma of the esophagus - vomiting with blood or black staining of stool.
If this vascular tumor develops in the liver( this is a fairly frequent localization), internal bleeding may develop, but symptoms may appear that indicate the compression of the biliary tract( jaundice, heaviness in the right hypochondrium).But more often such tumors are a casual find at carrying out of instrumental research on other occasion.
If the hemangioma develops in the spine, any symptoms appear only when the spinal cord has been squeezed.
What is the danger of hemangioma?
By themselves, hemangiomas are not dangerous: they do not metastasize and do not cause cancer intoxication or cachexia. Dangerous growth of such a tumor that can cause many different serious consequences:
- 1) Restriction of the functions of neighboring organs. Thus, the growth of the hemangioma on the neck and its germination into the underlying tissues can make breathing difficult, and when it is localized on the eyelid, vision on this eye becomes impossible. And the appearance of a hemangioma on a large vessel blocks the flow of blood through it, which can be life threatening.
- 2) Infection: Hemangiomas on the skin are easily damaged, and they can ulcerate themselves, which can, especially in the presence of diabetes or immunodeficiency, lead to the entry of a bacterial infection into the tumor tissue. This greatly increases the course of hemangioma.
- 3) The blood loss that occurs, mainly, when traumatizing the tumor tissue. With external localization, this condition is not particularly dangerous, since bleeding can be stopped by squeezing the vessel. Danger of bleeding from the hemangioma of the liver, since it is massive, and it can only be stopped surgically.
- 4) Impairment of blood clotting. It develops because the body, trying to fight with such a tumor as with damage to blood vessels, constantly delivers to it platelets and protein-clotting factors. After a while, they become less, which can lead to dangerous bleeding from other injured tissues.
Treatment of hemangioma
If the hemangioma appears in a child of 1-6 months and is large in volume, it can be injected with glucocorticoid hormones to stop its growth. The same hormones give the child inside. During the receipt of such treatment, and also after 3 months after it, the child should not be vaccinated.
Hemangioma on the face and in the genital area of adults is considered as an indication for urgent removal within three days. If the tumor increases 2 or more times in one week, or its complications appear, it should also be surgically removed. The following methods are used for this.
- 1) Sclerosing therapy. It is used for cavernous and venous vascular dysplasia, which are located in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and the parotid region. In the hemangioma, alcohol is introduced, it causes a chemical burn, which provokes inflammation. As a result of this reaction, the tumor must heal.
- 2) Cryodestruction( i.e., freezing with liquid nitrogen) is used for capillary hemangiomas with a low rate of blood flow in them.
- 3) Diathermocoagulation, that is, cauterization with an electrode through which an electric current passes, is suitable for removal of only small hemangiomas.
- 4) Low-voltage X-ray therapy is used to treat large hemangiomas on the face( especially on the eyelids).For children, such treatment is used with great care.
- 5) X-ray endovascular occlusion is the introduction of a special substance into the vessel that feeds the hemangioma. The tumor does not receive blood and dies.
- 6) Hyperthermia of the microwave electromagnetic field is based on the fact that with this influence of the electromagnetic field intramolecular bonds in the water molecule break, the structure of the cells that make up the hemangioma changes. As a result, the synthesis of tumor proteins is suppressed, the pathological tissue dies.
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