Causes, manifestations of debility and a test for debility
Mar 10, 2018
Deformity is the simplest form of manifestation of oligophrenia. This is the most common type of intellectual decline in children and accounts for 75% of all cases.
It is important to differentiate the debility from the borderline form of mental retardation, which is formed due to the delay of neuropsychic development provoked by the influence of external factors such as unfavorable living conditions, congenital or acquired physical defects that restrict cognitive activity and interfere with the normal development of the intellect. The test provides an opportunity to establish a form of pathology or confirm its absence.
Reasons for the formation of pathology
The reasons for the development of this pathology include, first of all, genetic predisposition and other negative effects on the fetus during its intrauterine development. Negative influences include infectious pathologies transferred by a woman during childbearing, Rhesus-conflict, hypoxia of the fetus, toxic effects on the fetus when consuming tobacco, alcohol and unauthorized medicines.
Also debility can develop due to birth trauma, asphyxia in the newborn, CNS infections and serious head injuries.
Classification of pathology
Depending on the degree of inferiority of development of mental and intellectual abilities, debility is divided into heavy, medium and light form. In its prevailing symptoms, debility is classified into atonic, dystrophic, asthenic and stenotic.
Symptomatology of pathology
For debility is characterized by a lack of ability to perceive complex concepts and produce complex generalizations, and also to think abstractly. In children with debility, visual-figurative thinking clearly manifests itself. They can perceive the phenomena around them only superficially and do not understand the situation as a whole.
A child with a diagnosis of debility with great difficulty can find the relationship between images and experiences difficulties in the process of comparing them. Such children often develop difficulties with speech. Typical for them are the poor in vocabulary, stagnation and inhibition of speech.
As a rule, education in school, patients is given with difficulty. It is difficult for them to learn the rules of spelling, they can hardly retell the text they just read, and they do not understand the tasks well. The most difficult subject is mathematics. Often among children suffering from debility, there are those who are gifted with absolute hearing, the artist's talent, fine mechanical memory, and so on.
Degeneracy is often supplemented by a restriction of the desire to cognize the surrounding world, the underdevelopment of moral, aesthetic qualities and will. For this reason, patients can not formulate their own opinion. Simultaneously, they easily imitate surrounding people, adopt their views and adhere to them. Weak will, insufficient independence unite with easy suggestibility, which can entail the involvement of such a person in a criminal group, as the patient does not realize the consequences of his actions.
As a rule.by nature, patients remain benevolent, kind, affectionate, or vice versa overly aggressive, stubborn, evil and vindictive.
The special organization of psychometry, various tests with the inclusion of plots and pictures, as well as experiments on the classification of images, helps to diagnose debility.
Treatment of pathology
The treatment of debility is aimed at correcting causal factors and their elimination.
Nootropics are used to restore cognitive performance. Even more significant are rehabilitation activities, memory training, self-service skills acquisition, psychotherapy, broadening of the horizon and the use of different teaching methods.
The decisive role in this case is the sequence of actions, their systematic and methodical. This approach gives the most positive result of the correction of mental retardation.