What is aplastic anemia? Symptoms, treatment
Mar 28, 2018
In our time, there are many factors that can greatly damage health. Aplastic anemia is a disease associated with deep oppression of hematopoiesis, especially of young cells of hemopoiesis. This is hyperchromic anemia, in which the amount of hemoglobin and erythrocytes is reduced, and the hematocrit is elevated.
Due to improper synthesis of almost all cells of the hematopoietic system, very severe disturbances from all organs will be observed.
Etiology and pathogenesis of
The causes of this disease can be either endogenous or exogenous. Among the endogenous factors, the dominant role is played - the hereditary mutation of the gene that codes for the synthesis of cells in the bone marrow. Such diseases include family aplastic anemia( Fanconi) and hypoplastic anemia( Ehrlich).
Fanconi anemia is characterized by severe anemia, in which the bone marrow has completely lost the ability to regenerate any row of blood cells. In case of complete emptying of the bone marrow, they speak of panmyelophthisis. The anemia of Ehrlich has a progressive course and is characterized by a complete death of the bone marrow. Clinically, it can be manifested by bleeding or even the attachment of sepsis.
Exogenous factors include:
- ionizing radiation( radiation anemia);
- action of toxic substances( benzenes, heavy metal salts, etc., toxic anemia);
- action of medications( eg, cytostatics, medical anemia);
- anemia of infectious nature;
- autoimmune anemia.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia
The type of course of anemia can be acute, subacute and chronic.
Lightning fastness, which is rare, can not be stopped by any treatment methods. Therefore, usually the outcome of this form is the death of the patient.
However, it is often possible to observe a chronic course of anemia, in which the patient seeks help at the stage of progressive pancytopenia.
The main complaints of the patient include: first, weakness, dizziness and headaches, fast fatigue, i.e.all signs of a normal anemia( anemic syndrome).This is due to the fact that the synthesis of erythrocytes is disturbed, and as a result, normal oxygen transport does not occur and hypoxia develops.
Secondly, because of a violation of the synthesis of platelets, there is increased bleeding, because even with minor injuries there may be no stop bleeding. On the skin will be seen petechiae, ecchymosis, bruising, and also there will be bleeding gums and uterine bleeding( hemorrhagic syndrome).
And, thirdly, even at a far advanced stage, due to the reduced synthesis of cells of the immune range, infections or even sepsis may be complicated.
Effective treatment of aplastic anemia
The most important criteria for treatment are correction of insufficiency by blood composition and symptomatic therapy. How to treat anemia is solved only by a doctor, because each person needs an individual approach.
In Fanconi anemia, the only treatment is a bone marrow transplant, but if not, use therapy as in aplastic anemia of exogenous genesis: transfusion of erythrocyte and platelet mass, prescribe suppressor therapy, and when an infection is required, antibacterial therapy is required. With a severe hemorrhagic syndrome, haemostatic therapy is performed.
How to cure anemia depends on you not only on the treatment being carried out, but also on you. Therefore, you just have to know what to eat when anemia, because medications do not always help you cure diseases.
However, there is no specific menu for anemia. The doctor advises to eat more food, containing in sufficient quantities of high-grade proteins, especially animals, it contributes to the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Limit your diet in fats that inhibit hemopoiesis, and use foods containing iron, cobalt, manganese and zinc( liver, eggs, cereals, vegetables, fruits, yeast, mushrooms, etc.).