What should I do when an acute attack of glaucoma?
Any violation in the functioning of the eyes requires medical intervention. A sharp attack of glaucoma in general can not do without emergency care, since its complication in the absence or incorrectness of treatment can be an incurable blindness.
Why intraocular pressure increases
The causes that lead to the formation of glaucoma are not well understood. Presumably, such an attack happens after the transfer of severe stress. The impetus to the development of glaucoma can be the sad news of the death of a loved one, quarrel, causing material damage and other troubles that cause excitement.
In addition, the attack can lead to the effects of atropine and its derivatives. Therefore, atropine for elderly people is only allowed in cases where a preliminary measurement of intraocular pressure produces indicators that are within the normal range. The development of glaucoma is prone to aging people. In persons under the age of fifty, it is extremely rare. Statistics show that an acute attack of glaucoma overtakes people over sixty.
How glaucoma develops
In most cases, an acute attack of glaucoma has so-called precursors. This is a veil before the eyes( misting) and the appearance of rainbow circles that surround the light source. Such phenomena are the result of a sudden and rapid increase in intraocular pressure, resulting in a violation of metabolic processes in the cornea. The result is a clouding of the cornea, which explains the appearance of the veil before the eyes.
The turbidity of the cornea also leads to the formation of iridescent circles. If the patient looks at the light source, then around him a rainbow is formed. Similarly, there is a rainbow circle in front of the eyes of an absolutely healthy person, if you look at the sun in foggy weather or after a rain.
People who have a seizure of glaucoma happen for the first time do not attach importance to such manifestations. The precursors of glaucoma can begin to arise even a few years before the development of the disease itself. But those people whose seizure has already occurred for the first time know that the appearance of the rainbow and misting are the first symptoms of an attack of glaucoma, so do not delay the trip to the ophthalmologist. Such patients need emergency care as much as people with a primary attack.
Symptoms of acute attack
However, such precursors may not be present at all. In this case, the attack sets in completely unexpected for the patient. Symptoms of an acute attack of glaucoma are a rapidly increasing pain in the eyes, which seems to creep across the entire surface of the head. Also, glaucoma is accompanied by the presence of photophobia. Headache can reach such intensity that it causes nausea and even vomiting.
The general well-being of a patient worsens: he begins to beat a chill, which indicates a sharp increase in body temperature, slows down the pulse, other manifestations of disruption of the cardiovascular system. Sometimes the pain becomes unbearable, the patient loses the ability to realize his actions, sometimes loss of consciousness.
These clinical manifestations are similar to the symptoms of many diseases, which greatly complicates the rapid formulation of the correct diagnosis. Therefore, often patients in the ambulance are delivered to the therapeutic, infectious disease department or neuralgia with the assumptions of poisoning, infectious or cardiovascular diseases and other pathologies that have a similar clinical picture. However, a superficial examination of the eyes is enough to notice changes in one of them, since both eyes are rarely affected at the same time, especially in the debut of the disease.
Acute attack of glaucoma is able to distinguish mid-level health worker. Signs of this disease is the redness of the eye protein, dilated pupil, not responsive to light, a changed color of the pupil. A sharp attack is characterized by a greenish tinge of the pupil. But the main symptom that makes it possible to distinguish glaucoma from other eye diseases is a strong compaction of the eye. If you touch the eye with your index fingers, it seems that you touch the hard material, like a stone. With a one-sided seizure, for a greater confidence in the correctness of the diagnosis, one can feel the sick and healthy eye of the patient for comparison, their hardness will differ significantly.
First Aid and Qualified Therapy for Attack of Glaucoma
Treatment for an acute attack of glaucoma is performed in the eye department. There is a need for an urgent measurement of intraocular pressure. Obtained indicators should be indicated in the medical history. Emergency care for an acute attack of glaucoma is to carry out activities aimed at reducing blood pressure and anesthesia. At an attack it is necessary to accept inside of 0,5 g Diamoksa, Diakarba or Fonurita. In a sore eye, several drops of 1 % pilocarpine solution should be administered. If there is a solution of Armin or Phosphacol at hand, you can drip a couple of drops of any of them.
Further treatment will be prescribed by an ophthalmologist. Sometimes, in order to maintain eyesight, it is necessary to conduct an urgent operation. Therefore, you should immediately seek help. It is best to consult an ophthalmologist immediately after the first symptoms of glaucoma - rainbow circles and fog, because he can tell how to avoid the appearance of an acute attack or prepare for it. If the patient is fully informed about the necessary actions in case of an attack, negative consequences can be avoided.