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  • Ocular and other diseases that cause anisocoria, and ways of treatment

    Anisocoria is a phenomenon in which a different diameter of the pupils is observed. Its appearance is associated with an imbalance in the function of the eye muscles responsible for the dilatation and contraction of the pupil. All the causes of anisocoria can be divided into three groups:

    • By the time of appearance. This pathology is divided into congenital anisocoria( that is, formed as a result of intrauterine developmental disorders) and acquired.
    • By localization. Absence of synchronicity of the pupils can occur due to eye and non-eye causes.
    • According to the degree of defeat. There is one-sided and two-sided anisocoria. The latter option is found in extremely rare cases.

    Congenital variant of anisocoria occurs in the defeat of the muscular apparatus of the iris. If this pathology is neurological, then it goes in combination with other abnormalities of intrauterine development.

    Anisocoria associated with eye diseases

    Acquired anisocoria can be observed due to a number of disorders and diseases. The reasons for its development in a local lesion may be trauma to the eye. In this case, there is a rupture of the ligamentous apparatus or an increase in intraocular pressure, which can paralyze the muscles of the iris.

    Muscular spasm can result in such eye diseases as iritis or iridocyclitis. Ultimately, with the development of such diseases, one of the pupils ceases to respond to the change in lighting. The constriction of the pupil in glaucoma is often compensatory, since it facilitates the outflow of fluid that accumulates inside the eye.

    Substances such as atropine, tropicamide or belladonna are also able to directly affect the neuromuscular apparatus of the eyeball and cause spasm.

    Other causes of

    No eye causes of anisocoria occur in diseases that are not directly related to pathological changes in the structure of the eye.

    These may be disorders in the central nervous system:

    • traumatic brain injury;
    • tumor or abscess of the brain;
    • meningitis, encephalitis;
    • high intracranial pressure;
    • is a migraine;
    • lesion of the trunk or cervical spinal cord;
    • neurosyphilis;
    • the use of narcotic substances;
    • stroke.

    Sometimes anisocoria can be an indirect sign of a tumor of the upper lobe of the lung or lymph node in the chest with pressure on the nerve endings.

    Anisocoria may be an integral part of Argyll's syndrome. It is characterized by the isolated immobility of the pupil. It can be observed with late signs of syphilis, shingles, with alcoholism, multiple sclerosis. The convergence and accommodation reaction is preserved.

    The paralysis of the eye muscle in the syndrome of Adi also causes a phenomenon such as anisocoria. And the size of the affected pupil can vary throughout the course of the disease and even during the day. A reliable reason for the development of such a pathology has not yet been revealed. Often he is accompanied by violations of reflexes of the extremities.

    How does the disease manifest itself?

    Since anisocoria is not an independent disease, the symptoms of anisocoria, and the signs of the underlying disease, will come to the fore when it appears. But still can be noted:

    1. The lack of reaction of one of the pupils to decrease the illumination, in norm in the darkness it should expand.
    2. From the side of the altered eye, the manifestation of the ptosis( descent) of the upper eyelid is evident.
    3. Visual impairment, blurry and unclear images.
    4. Headache, at the height of which there is nausea and vomiting.
    5. Photophobia.
    6. Expanding visible objects.

    But to panic if you find a small difference in the diameter of your pupils is not worth it. After all, in 20% of cases such a sign is noted in completely healthy people. This anisocoria is physiological. With this option, the difference in size does not exceed 0.5 mm, but sometimes it can reach up to 1 mm and even more. Manifestation of hereditary anisocoria is also no reason to worry. If such a phenomenon was observed in the parents, then manifested in the child, will pass with his growing up.

    If anisocoria is much more than 1 mm and is accompanied by other symptoms, you should consult a doctor immediately, as this can signal a very serious disease, which, most often, is of a neurological nature.

    What should I do?

    Treatment of anisocoria should consist of a thorough examination of the patient and the identification of the cause that led to such changes in the pupillary response to light.

    In case of inflammation of the brain envelopes( meningitis, meningoencephalitis) the patient is put in a hospital and is provided with antibacterial therapy, measures to reduce the intoxication syndrome and restore the water-salt balance.

    Head injuries, which are manifested in that number in the form of anisocoria, require immediate surgical intervention.

    In the presence of a tumor process, the tactic consists of the localization of the process, the degree of prevalence, and the general state of a person. In this case, excision of altered tissues is necessary or, in advanced cases, symptomatic therapy with antitumor drugs is taken to alleviate the condition and prolong the life of the patient.

    If, however, the difference in the reaction to the change in illumination is due to traumatic damage to the eyeball or in diseases of the iris, then there is already the use of drugs that can directly affect the very process of disturbing the synchronous work of the pupils. In fact, such techniques should be aimed not only at treating the pathology of the eye, but also to correct the work of the muscles of the iris.

    If the cause of anisocoria is migraine, then there are special medications for its elimination, which include anesthetic and antispasmodic effect. Corticosteroids are sometimes used when the cerebral edema is expressed.

    How to treat anisocoria in eye diseases? Iritas or iridocyclites use cholinoblockers for this purpose, since their atropine-like action affects the muscles of the iris in a relaxing way. The use of such treatment leads to the appearance of a stable dilatation of the pupils - mydriasis. Medicines that are aimed at eliminating the underlying pathology, in complex application with holinoblokatorami much faster can cope with inflammatory processes and accelerate recovery.

    During some diseases, for example, with the syndrome of Adi, the correction of the diameter of the pupil is carried out by the constant instillation of pilocarpine.

    The main point of correct treatment of anisocoria is the timely access for help to specialists. Self-medication and the use of folk methods in this case do not bring an effect.

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