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  • Conjunctivitis: symptoms and treatment, photo, prevention

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    Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory process that affects the conjunctival membrane.

    It is located on the back of the eyelid, and also covers the eyeball before joining the cornea.

    Conjunctivitis can have a different origin: both infectious-dependent and non-infectious-dependent.

    Forms and causes of conjunctivitis


    The main causes that lead to the development of this disease are the following:

    • bacteria( staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, pneumococci, corynebacteria diphtheria)
    • viruses( herpes on the lips, adenovirus and others)
    • chlamydia
    • various medications
    • foci of allergens
    • on the mucous eyes of a chronic infection in the body that alter the reactivity of the organism, creating the prerequisites for autoimmune reactions, etc.
    Predisposing factors for the development of conjunctivitis are:

    • exposure to low temperatures
    • overheating
    • dust content of the air
    • bathing in a muddy body of water
    • acute respiratory diseases that reduce the intensity of immune reactions and resistance of the body.
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    The classification of conjunctivitis takes into account various aspects. The course of the disease can be acute and chronic. Given the etiology, the following forms of conjunctivitis are distinguished:

    • viral
    • bacterial
    • allergic
    • autoimmune
    • pollinosis.
    Thus, different causes of conjunctivitis factors determine the characteristics of ongoing treatment.

    Symptoms of conjunctivitis


    Symptoms of conjunctivitis may have similarities or differences, which depend on the nature of the disease. Common subjective signs of conjunctivitis are:

    • eye pains that increase with blinking
    • increased lachrymation
    • burning sensation and itching in the eyeball
    • purulent or abundant mucous-watery discharge from the eye
    • screwing up the eyes when light hits
    • sensation of foreign body in the eye.
    Objectively determined signs of this disease are:

    • reddening of the eye, which is most pronounced at the periphery of the
    • edema of the conjunctival shell
    • narrower eye gap compared with the healthy eye
    • velvety of the conjunctiva, as it loses its inherent shine.
    Individual forms of the disease have their own specific features, which you can find out below.


    Symptoms depending on the form of the disease:


    The features of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are:

    • bilateral bilateral eye lesions
    • the presence of pus that glues the eyelashes together
    • blurred vision due to a purulent discharge.
    Pneumococcal conjunctivitis features such as:

    • presence of pinpoint hemorrhages in the conjunctival shell
    • marked edema of the eyelid
    • formation of whitish-gray
    • films most often this disease affects old people and children who have dramatically reduced immunity.
    conjunctivitis caused by gonococci has the following distinctive features:

    • intensive edema of the eyelids
    • marked congestion of the conjunctiva
    • bloody discharge from the eyes, which soon becomes purulent
    • frequent development of complications, including corneal ulcers, throat( its turbidity), generalization of infection in the ocularapple. All this can lead to blindness.
    Herpetic conjunctivitis manifests itself as a characteristic rash on the mucous membrane. It flows for a long time and is characterized by a one-sided defeat. When the disease is severe, conjunctivitis causes erosive and ulcerous areas. They are the entrance gate to the bacterial flora, which aggravates the course of the inflammatory process.

    In the case of adenovirus infection, the general condition of a person suffers - there is a high fever, a weakness. Also joins conjunctivitis, combined with pharyngitis.

    Diagnosis of conjunctivitis is mainly based on clinical picture data. However, in order to establish the cause of the development of this inflammatory process, a bacteriological study has been carried out.

    This allows differentiating gonococcal and diphtheria conjunctivitis, which is necessary to select the most rational treatment. To confirm the viral nature of the disease, a polymerase chain reaction is shown.

    When suspected of the allergic origin of this inflammatory process, immunological tests are shown, including the determination of immunoglobulin E on the mucosa of the eye. Skin allergic tests can identify a causal agent.

    See also how to treat conjunctivitis in adults.

    Treatment of conjunctivitis


    Treatment of conjunctivitis depends on the cause, which led to the development of this disease.

    So, for bacterial inflammation:

    1. 1) Antibacterial drugs
    2. 2) Anti-inflammatory drugs( either hormonal or non-steroidal).
    3. 3) Special antibacterial drops for eyes from conjunctivitis, which contribute to the abatement of the pathological process.
    They must be instilled hourly during the first day, and then 4-6 times a day, depending on the duration of their action. In no case should the eyes be bandaged, as they create conditions like thermostatic and promote the active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.

    The correct instillation is as follows:

    • mandatory handwashing
    • pulling down the lower eyelid to expose the conjunctival cavity
    • slight pressure on the vial with droplets, while the tip of the bottle should not touch the eye
    • after instillation of the eye should be closed, but without effort, not to squeeze out drops. Closing the eyes will allow the drug to spread evenly over the outer surface of the eyeball.
    When gonococcal conjunctivitis shows the use of sulfanilamide drugs( Albucid), which are active against these microorganisms. Most often, this disease develops in newborns when passing through the infected birth canal of the mother. Therefore, after the birth, all children are dripped with drops in each eye. This is an effective preventive measure.

    However, with the development of gonococcal lesions of the conjunctiva, it is also shown that the eye is washed with an unconcentrated solution of manganese acid potassium, which has an antiseptic effect. At night, you can lay tetracycline ointment in the eye. The duration of treatment depends on the time needed to eliminate gonococci. In all cases it is necessary to carry out a bacteriological study. With the effectiveness of the current therapy for the growth of gonococci in sowing out of the eye is not observed. If treatment is started late, it can lead to the development of a number of complications( opacification of the conjunctiva, the transition of the inflammatory process to other structures of the eyeball, etc.).

    The development of diphtheria conjunctivitis is an indication for the hospitalization of a child or adult in an infectious hospital, since it poses a danger to others, and the delay in specific treatment can lead to serious consequences.

    In a hospital such patients are administered antidiphtheria serum according to a special scheme. Also, systemic antibiotics are prescribed, while Albucid is locally applied or tetracycline ointment is placed. The treatment is carried out until negative cultures are obtained from the eye.

    With viral conjunctivitis, the treatment program is as follows:

    1. 1) Topical application of antiherpetic drops or ointments( for example, Oftan-Ida drops, eye acyclovir ointment).For other viral agents, etiotropic treatment is not available.
    2. . 2) Immunostimulating drugs that are administered topically( instilled with a solution of Viferon or others) or systemically, depending on the severity of the inflammatory process of
    3. . 3) Specific antiviral therapy( gamma globulin is introduced).
    In case of allergic conjunctivitis, it is necessary immediately to stop contact with the causative allergen, as well as to cancel medications that could cause such a reaction. In parallel, it is shown to start taking antihistamines( can be used as tablets or injections, which allow for faster therapeutic improvement).The eye shows the instillation of corticosteroid ointments, and at night ointments with the same active substance can be incorporated.

    Treatment of conjunctivitis with folk remedies


    Folk remedies in the treatment of conjunctivitis are ancillary, they are used as a supplement to traditional treatment. The main methods that are recommended by folk medicine in the therapy of this disease are:

    • eye packs made from dried aloe leaves
    • marshmallows - its broth is used for eye washing
    • decoction from rose petals
    • infusion of cornflower flowers.
    For the preparation of infusion from any medicinal plant, it is necessary to take one tablespoon of phytochemicals and pour it with a glass of boiling water. The infusion time is half an hour, after which the infusion should be filtered. Only after that it is ready for use.

    Prevention


    Preventive measures for conjunctivitis are as follows:

    • adherence to hygienic facial care
    • hands before rubbing the eyes must be necessarily clean
    • antibiotic prophylaxis after birth to all children( you can use the drops of Albucid, which are digested three times in 20 minutes,or eye tetracycline ointment, laid down once)
    • use of individual towels
    • handkerchiefs should be replaced with disposableumazhnymi napkins
    • avoid contact with allergens in allergic disposition of the body.


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