Requirements of indoor plants to the conditions of growth
Mar 26, 2018
Growth and development of indoor plants, their attractiveness and yield depend on many factors. To ensure that they are the best able to show all their qualities( decorativeness, yield), they need to create conditions close to those that they have in their homeland. Plants primarily need a sufficient amount of light, heat, moisture, air and nutrients. All these components are in mutual dependence and have a significant effect on the vital activity of plants. Changing one of these factors leads to a change in the others. For example, lack of light reduces the intensity of photosynthesis, which means that the development of plants slows down and yields decrease. The violation of the temperature regime in the apartments contributes to a decrease in the intake of water and, accordingly, mineral salts into the plant. In room conditions there are great opportunities for creating and regulating the regimes necessary for the life of plants.
The heat of the indoor plants is crucial for the normal functioning of indoor plants. For most of them this value is 15 - 25 ° C.All the basic processes of vital activity of plants are associated with heat, primarily assimilation, transpiration of leaves, respiration;the chemical transformation and movement of substances within plant organisms depend on temperature.
All vegetable plants according to the requirements for heat VA Bryzgalov( 1983) attributed to three groups.
The first group includes heat-loving plants, the optimum temperature for which should be within 23-25 ° C.These include all the marginal vegetable crops and plants grown from seeds.
The second group includes cultures requiring moderate temperature( 12 - 1b ° C).These are green and cruciferous plants.
The third group includes plants that require low temperatures( 2 - 6 ° C).First of all, these include vegetable crops that are put up for cultivation. Subtropical fruit plants during autumn and winter are best kept at low temperatures( +4 - + 15 ° C).
Do not allow too sharp differences between day and night temperatures, at which drying and falling leaves occur. Do not place house plants near heating systems. Here, the temperature can rise sharply and the humidity of the air can decrease.
Drafts are undesirable for drafts, therefore it is not recommended to place them near entrance doors, ventilation holes, gas or electric cookers.
Water and air humidity
Water is the main component of the plant, as it involves the basic processes of vital activity. The need for different plants in water depends on the temperature of air and soil, on the size of the root system and the type of plants.
When there is a lack of water, the leaves turn off, their edges become brown and they fall off. At tomatoes at deficiency of water flowers fall down, a radish throws out a flower arrow, cabbage does not form heads.
If the moisture is excessive, the soil becomes sour, the sign of which is the appearance on it of a greenish coating with an unpleasant odor, the plant stems are covered with mold. Leaves and inflorescences rot. Soil sogginess can be observed with an excessively large capacity for cultivation, poor drainage or with excessive watering.
In vegetable crops, the demand for water varies depending on the growth and development of plants. It is the highest in the period of the formation of flowers, ovaries and development of fruits, as well as germination of seeds.
The relative humidity of air, which at optimum care should be in the range of 60 -70%, is not less important for normal life of indoor plants. Insufficient air humidity leads to the oppression of plants, the fall of buds and flowers and the dropping of the ovaries.
Particularly large problems with humidity occur in winter in heated rooms, especially near windows, under which there are heating batteries. Therefore, we always recommend finding ways to isolate plants from heating batteries.
If the relative humidity drops to 40 - 50%, it is necessary to raise it immediately. This is done with the help of various types of moisturizers.
To increase the humidity of the air, you can also use tanks filled with gravel, where they pour water and put pots with indoor plants.
Indoor plants, unlike plants growing in the open ground, are much less provided with oxygen and carbon dioxide, so necessary for the plant to normal life. Carbon dioxide is the only source of carbon nutrition. Under the influence of sunlight carbon dioxide in the leaves of plants is converted into organic compounds( the process of photosynthesis).The source of carbon dioxide in the premises are air, soil substrate and mineral fertilizers used for top dressing. Oxygen is necessary for breathing the root system of plants. Sealing of soil contributes to a significant reduction in the flow of air to the roots, because through the compacted soil, the access of oxygen to them is dramatically reduced.
The rooms where the plants are standing, especially in winter, should often be ventilated, facilitating the arrival of fresh air in the apartment. The air regime of indoor plants is highly adversely affected by air pollution with dust and cigarette smoke.
In relation to light, plants are divided into plants of a short day( less than 12 hours) and plants of a long day( more than 12 hours).
To plants of a short day include all subtropical fruit plants, as well as tea, laurel, coffee, laurel. Of vegetables in the same group includes peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, most tomatoes, beans, zucchini and others.
The plants of a long day include all onion, root vegetables, lettuce, cabbage, sorrel, spinach.
When growing plants in a closed ground, including in a room environment, it is necessary to take into account the degree of their demand for light and, in accordance with this, place them in the premises.
For example, rooms located on the lower floors of buildings receive much less light than on the upper floors. In rooms located on the south side, the intensity of light is always much higher than on the north side. The arrival of light in the rooms strongly depends on the size of the windows, the presence of curtains, curtains and the transparency of the windows.
For most plants, the optimum illumination is between 20 and 40 thousand lux. In winter, in the middle belt on a clear, sunny day, it is within 5000 lux. In the room it is even lower. Nevertheless, in such lighting without artificial illumination, almost all subtropical fruit and tonic plants can be found, as well as onion, sorrel, parsley, celery.
Depending on its origin, plants in the room must receive the necessary light rate. At its shortage, they should be moved closer to the light source or set artificial illumination. However, we must remember that plants need to create a special spectrum of lighting - blue and red, close to the sun. To obtain such light, the most suitable are low-pressure fluorescent lamps, as well as sodium high-pressure lamps( their name and detailed characteristics are available in shops selling lamps).
The requirement of different plants for light is especially important when growing seedlings.