Dysarthria in children: causes, symptoms, prognosis, forms of dysarthria

  • Dysarthria in children: causes, symptoms, prognosis, forms of dysarthria

    What it is? Indiscriminate speech, half of unpronounceable letters in young children, does not cause fear and anxiety in loving parents, until the problem becomes obvious.

    And the name of this problem is dysarthria. The disease is characterized by a disorder of articulation, which causes large speech defects.

    For dysarthria, speech disorders are caused by lack of movement of speech organs, a consequence of which is slurred and incomprehensible speech.

    Regardless of the fact that speech logic is preserved, articulation, voice background and sound are disturbed. When the disease is violated speech entirely, and not just a certain sound scolding. Is noted:

    • insufficient voice strength;
    • unstable speech pace;
    • greased speech;
    • bradypnoe( irregular breathing)
    • lack of facial expression( in some cases).
    Dysarthria affects not only children, but also adults.

    Causes of dysarthria

    Causes of the disease are different, therefore, if appropriate symptoms of dysarthria develop, the child should be carefully examined and immediately switched to treatment. The causative factor of children's forms of dysarthria is organic matter in the subcortical structures. It is the dysarthria, which is the main symptom of bulbar or pseudobulbar syndrome. It occurs as a result of:
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    • of infections transmitted in the perinatal period
    • of the effect of toxicosis during the period of gestation( see toxicosis during pregnancy);
    • hypoxia or brain trauma during childbirth;
    • is an inflammatory disease of the brain in the anamnesis.
    The consequence of the disease can affect the child's mental development, manifested:

    • a violation in the development of movements, especially in performing small, precise movements;
    • difficulties in communication, expressed in a lack of understanding of the meaning of calls;
    • difficulty in learning( writing and reading).
    The difficulties of speech development contribute to the lag in the development of intellectual features. Such children have to be trained in special educational institutions.

    Manifestations of the disease in adult patients do not bear serious complications, but the consequences of dysarthria provoke many other neurological pathologies. The cause of the disease in a more adult generation may be the consequences:

    • of intracranial hemorrhages;
    • diseases of vascular systems;
    • various types of intracranial neoplasm;
    • various types of intoxication;
    • intracranial lesions;
    • infectious diseases of the nervous system.

    Types and forms of dysarthria

    There are several types and forms of pathology, depending on the place of injury - both single lesions, and a complete pronunciation disorder. The basis of the classification is - the division of the disease into different criteria:

    The first criterion of is based on the principle of localization and the level of damage to the speech apparatus. This classification includes the following types and forms of dysarthria:

    1. 1) Bulbar type is characterized by weakening and muscle paralysis in the defeat of branches and nuclei of the facial nerve.
    2. 2) Pseudobulbar type is similar to bulbar, this species is characterized by paralysis of the facial musculature, general and fine motor skills. The facial musculature is broken with the manifestation of disturbances in the swallowing functions and excessive salivation.
    3. 3) The cortical form of dysarthria is manifested by disorders in the pronunciation of syllables with preservation of the verbal structure itself. It arises as a result of the disruption of the motor zones in the cortical structures of the brain responsible for the innervation of the verbal musculature, and therefore for articulation.
    4. 4) The cerebellar form of the disease is characterized by a syndrome of cerebellar involvement. There is a long, chanted speech, the volume and modulation of the timbre change.
    5. 5) Subcortical, extrapyramidal appearance of dysarthria. It is characterized by dysfunction of subcortical caudate nuclei( nodes).It is manifested by hyperkinesis, involuntary cries, violations of voice power, timbre, tension of muscles, rhythm and voice intonation.
    6. 6) The Parkinsonian species is a subcortical species, manifested during the period of Parkinson's disease. Characterized by slow, inexpressive speech and pathology of voice modulation.
    7. 7) The erased kind of disease is a kind of pseudobulbar. . It is characterized by cuts of separate muscle groups. Sound reproduction is fuzzy, blurred, dysphonia is noted, short shallow breathing.
    8. 8) The cold appearance of dysarthria is a consequence of congenital myopathy. Difficult articulation manifests itself at a reduced temperature in the room or during a conversation in the cold period on the street.
    The 2nd criterion of the classification of a dysarthria is based on the principle of a sym- tomological approach for leading neurological pathology. The following forms are noted:

    1. 1) Spastico is a peric syndrome - the defining syndrome is paralysis and paresis of the motor neuron in the cerebral cortex.
    2. 2) Spastic-rehydration syndrome. The defining syndrome is the central paralysis and rehydration of speech activity.
    3. 3) Spastic-hyperkinetic syndrome. The leading signs are central paresis, impaired coordination, and involuntary movements of the facial muscles.
    4. 4) Spastic-atactic syndrome. The defining feature is complicated forms of pseudobulbar and cerebellar species.
    5. 5) Atiko-hyperkinetic syndrome. Identifying the symptom of incoordination and paresis.
    The third criterion of the classification is based on the degree of the patient's speech concept for the people around him. The severity of violations identified 4 degrees.

    1. The first degree is the easiest, it is revealed only after examination.
    2. 2nd degree.- the speech is understandable, but there are no doubts in the pronunciation of the pronunciation.
    3. 3rd degree - speech is understood only by people close to the patient. Others understand speech in part.
    4. 4-th degree is characterized as anarthria - speech is incomprehensible even to a close environment or the possibility of pronunciation is absent altogether.
    See also:

    • dyslexia - a violation of the ability to understand and read written text;
    • dysgraphy - a violation of the ability to write correctly;
    • alalia - a violation of the ability to speak;

    Signs and symptoms of dysarthria

    Dysarthria, the main symptoms of which are similar in almost all types of disease, differs only in degree of severity.

    The expert can fully characterize them, but some symptoms can be noticed and independently. This should alert the parents and take an appropriate decision for the survey.

    Symptoms of dysarthria are expressed:

    • spontaneous loss of tongue with open mouth;
    • sluggish, not closing or tightly compressed lips;
    • with increased salivation;
    • shows inconsistency of voice and speech breathing;
    • violated rhythm, speech tempo and melody;
    • in the absence of signs of ENT diseases, constant nasal reprimand;
    • distortion or omission of sounds, sometimes several at once and replacing them with other sounds;
    • as a result of violation of speech breathing by the end of the sentence, speech can fade, in the middle of the phrase the child can often breathe or suffocate.
    • can be marked by voice changes, it can be either squeaky or very high.
    • as a result of violation of the melody of speech appears the inability to independently change the pitch. Speech monotonous, slow or too fast, but in any case incomprehensible.

    Prognosis and prevention of dysarthria

    There are no specific preventive measures for the disease. This may include measures to prevent craniocerebral injuries, including birth defects, as well as control the course of pregnancy and the prevention of infectious diseases in this period. Observance of hygiene of marriage, exclusion of bad habits, capable of causing perinatal pathologies.

    With regard to the prognosis for dysarthria, then taking into account the polymorphism of the disease, a favorable outcome can be, for example, with an erased or cold form of a dysarthria, it can be corrected when practicing with a speech therapist. As for the forms of brain disorders, such as the bulbar form and the like, the pathologies remain for life. The prognosis fully depends on the form of the disease, the patience of the parents and the observance of all medical recommendations.

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