Dysgraphy: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and correction of dysgraphy

  • Dysgraphy: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and correction of dysgraphy

    What it is? The inability of a person to learn the correct letter is called "dysgraphy."

    This disorder is not self-sufficient. Most often at the same time with dysgraphy, dyslexia is noted, which is expressed in problems with reading.

    The disorder of the letter is diagnosed in the preschool and school age and is expressed in persistent, repetitive mistakes.

    A child with a dysgraphy at any diligence can hardly independently master a letter at peer level. For such children, additional work is needed to correct the dysgraphy.

    Causes of

    Dysgraphia Why does dysgraphy occur in children, and what is it? The disease develops as a result of the disruption of the functions of those parts of the brain that are responsible for the process of mastering the letter. There can be several reasons for such violations.

    First of all, experts identify hereditary predisposition. The child in this case is born already with dysgraphy and often with dyslexia, as it is also transmitted from generation to generation.
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    The following reasons that affect the development of dysgraphia include injuries and diseases affecting the brain. A child may be exposed to them before birth, for example, in cases of severe childbirth or intrauterine infection. In the first years of life, the risk of developing dysgraphia due to the same injuries and diseases is also great.

    In addition, the child at this time has a strong influence of socio-psychological factors, which play far from the last role in the development of abilities and skills. Such socio-psychological factors include the amount of attention paid to parents by the child, the adequacy of close speech contacts, bilingualism in the family, the cultural level of the family, etc.

    The diagnosis is not only diagnosed in school-age children. Since this disorder occurs due to impairment of the functions of certain areas of the brain, adults can also face dysgraphy. This can happen because of injuries, brain surgeries, tumors, brain hemorrhages, and strokes.

    Symptoms and signs of dysgraphy in children

    Dysgraphy, the symptoms of which are manifested in persistent violations of the letter, when the child repeatedly makes mistakes in words, despite the learned rules of the language.

    Such typical mistakes include missing letters, confusion in writing similar in writing or sounding letters, for example, LM or DT, using only certain cases, tearing words or adding new letters and syllables to it.

    In addition, children with dysgraphy experience difficulties not only with the correct spelling of words, but also with the writing process itself. So, sentences can "go" by a wave, break in the middle, a child can unconsciously skip lines, replace capital letters with lowercase letters and vice versa.

    Sometimes there are cases when the sentence structure is violated, that is, there is a permutation of words that complicates the understanding of the written text.

    Classification of the

    Dysgraphy Depending on what mistakes the child makes while writing the text, as well as the severity of these violations, several forms of dysgraphy can be distinguished.

    Some forms are quite rare, but they all require competent correction.

    The articulatory-acoustic form of dysgraphy is expressed in the fact that the child can not apply the rules of the language, therefore he writes, relying solely on his pronunciation. This leads to frequent errors in the letter, which are characterized by replacements, additions and omissions of letters.

    The acoustic form of dysgraphy is expressed in the fact that the child confuses the writing of similar in sounding letters. So, there may be problems with D-T, B-P, M-S, C-C, etc. Certain difficulties also arise with soft and hard signs. The child can ascribe them once more, confuse their location or completely ignore them.

    Another form of dysgraphy is based on violations of language analysis and synthesis. It is characterized by omissions and permutations of letters, the addition of extra letters or syllables. In addition, the child can duplicate the same letters because of the slow speed of writing combined with the prolonged pronunciation of words.

    The less common form of the disorder is the agramatic dysgraphy. It is characterized by ignoring the rules of grammar, which is expressed in the wrong spelling of the endings of words due to the fact that the child can not master the rules for changing words by case, gender and number.

    There is also an optical discography, which is characterized by the fact that the child can not write individual letters because of a misunderstanding of their structure. Each letter consists of certain parts or elements that the child is unable to understand in optical discography, and therefore to write.

    See also:

    • alalia - a violation of the ability to speak;
    • dysarthria is a speech disorder.

    Diagnosis of dysgraphy in a child

    It is possible to diagnose dysgraphia in children accurately only at school age, when the child begins to master the writing skills. Having problems writing words does not mean that the child has a letter breakdown.

    For the diagnosis, a number of studies are needed that include consultations of a neurologist, ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist. If these specialists exclude defects and pathologies that may cause the child problems with the letter, further diagnostics will be required to identify and confirm the dysgraphy.

    The specialist should be working to assess the child's written abilities and general condition. For diagnostic purposes, tests are offered that include writing off the text. After that, all the errors that the child has committed are highlighted, and the importance of these errors is also assessed.

    The child's speech development, his ability to perceive oral and written text, the amount and quality of attention that the child gives to the text, his vocabulary, is also evaluated. Thanks to these actions, it is possible to determine the form of dysgraphy, its severity, and also the construction of adequate corrective work.

    Correction of dysgraphy in junior schoolchildren

    Correction should be carried out only by an experienced specialist. Speech therapist, assessing the abilities and condition of the child, develops an individual scheme of correction of dysgraphy in younger students including a variety of exercises.

    There are many methods that allow you to cope with a letter breakdown. So, a child is often offered to emphasize letters with which problems arise, make special written exercises, draw analogies with images.

    In addition, the correction program aims to increase the vocabulary, to fill the gaps in education.

    The child thus learns the correct speech, especially in the case of the articulatory-acoustic form of dysgraphy, develops the skills of perception and understanding of the text, trains memory and analytical thinking. All this contributes to the elimination of signs of writing disorder.

    In some cases, corrective programs take place against the backdrop of drug therapy, in which the child is prescribed vitamin complexes and nootropics that stimulate the work of the brain.

    Important in the treatment of dysgraphy in younger schoolchildren should be played not only by the speech therapist, but also by parents who can not demand from the child with frustration the letters of the same results as the peers. In addition, it is imperative to understand by teachers who otherwise may have a negative impact on the child, which will discourage him from learning, developing and overcoming disgra- sion.

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