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Hernia: causes, symptoms, treatment and classification of hernias

  • Hernia: causes, symptoms, treatment and classification of hernias

    If the internal organs or deep tissues begin to partially exit from the cavities in which they are in a normal state, one should speak of a hernia.

    The location of the prominence defines the name of the disease. Consider the most common varieties. Types of hernia:

    Femur


    This type of disease is more typical for women. It arises from the fact that in the femoral canal, originally intended for the passage of the femoral artery, the veins, the nerve from the hip to the peritoneum, is part of the contents of the abdominal cavity.

    This hernia has the appearance of a small rounded bulge, located lower than the inguinal fold lies. If the patient strains muscles or rises, the tumor becomes more noticeable. The direction of such a hernia is accompanied by a special rumbling.

    Inguinal


    Inguinal hernia is the most common, usually characteristic of men. There are direct and oblique inguinal hernia. The onset of the disease can be associated with a weakening of the peritoneum or not ingrown by the inguinal canal in time( see inguinal hernia in men).
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    The place of appearance of a characteristic bulge is the groin in the area where the thigh is connected to the body. Symptoms of this disease are as follows:

    • painful burning sensation;
    • tenderness of the localization of hernia;
    • an explicit pointer to the inguinal hernia is a special protrusion of the skin in this place, although in male patients it sometimes appears in the scrotum.



    Umbilical


    Umbilical hernia has a high frequency of occurrence. Often, it is diagnosed in newborns, here its appearance is due to the fact that the wall of the peritoneum is not completely connected. In the older age, the appearance of the disease is associated with the weakness of the umbilical region.

    At the initial stage, the umbilical hernia is painless, manifested only by a small bulge near the navel. But over time, it can begin to grow, then its direction becomes painful and not always possible, with the drawing of pain, it can accompany acts of defecation.

    Intervertebral


    The appearance of the intervertebral hernia is associated with the protrusion of the fibrous ring towards the intervertebral space, which accompanies the infringement and rupture with the release of the substance contained within. Depending on the area of ‚Äč‚Äčlocation, problems on the spine are determined by a hernia of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine.

    The main factor that leads to the onset of the disease is the dehydration of the intervertebral discs. The main sign of a hernia is pain, the nature and severity of which is determined by the location of the hernial sac and the degree of development of the disease. So, if the disease takes place in the cervical region, it manifests itself as a headache, as well as soreness of the neck and shoulders.

    Hernia in the thoracic region is manifested by pain of the shoulder joints, scapula, thorax. When the disease is localized in the lumbar region, the buttocks, the lumbar region, and the lower limbs become numb.

    See also, exercises with a hernia of the spine.


    Methods of treatment of hernia


    Features of treatment measures are explained by the specificity of each type of hernia.

    Timely disposal of the disease allows to avoid infringements, which negatively affect human health.

    Treatment of inguinal hernia


    When inguinal hernia is always resorted to surgical methods. During the operation, a small incision is made in the groin area, the testicle is carefully separated from the hernial sac, then this sac is cut to check whether there are elements of the organs or intestine in it.

    If the answer turns out to be positive, the contents of the hernial sac are placed in the peritoneum, and it is itself cut off with bandaging the exit from the inguinal canal. To prevent the recurrence of the disease, the inguinal ring is strengthened with plastic or threads.

    After this, the cut is sewn and the operation is considered complete.

    Treatment of femoral hernia


    Treatment measures to eliminate this disease are of an extremely operational nature and are called hernioplasty. The purpose of the operation is to open the hernial sac, examine the fallen organs, fix them and sew the hernial opening with strengthening the peritoneal wall.

    The operation can be performed from the inguinal canal or thigh. There are two types of operations that are performed with femoral hernia:

    1. 1) Classical plastics using local tissues, in which the defect of the femoral canal is sutured with synthetic non-absorbable threads with the involvement of the tissues of the patient himself.
    2. 2) Plastic with synthetic prostheses, which is characterized by the installation of a synthetic prosthesis in front of the abdominal wall without suturing the femoral canal. In this case, the duration of hospitalization can reach 3 days, and the removal of seams is carried out on the 12th day.

    Treatment of umbilical hernia


    This type of disease can only be eradicated promptly. There are three types of surgical manipulations:

    1. 1) The simplest plastic is stretch, in which the skin is dissected, the dropped organs return to their original anatomical position, the extra stretched connective tissue is removed, the hernial collar is tightened and sutured.
    2. 2) In endoprosthetics, the operation looks somewhat different: when the hernial sac is already inserted, the umbilical ring is closed with a special endoprosthesis, which is a polypropylene sterile mesh. Over time, this prosthesis grows into the tissue and will prevent the re-emergence of a hernia.
    3. 3) During the laparoscopic hernioplasty, the surgeon's actions are carried out through small punctures, which can significantly reduce the rehabilitation period.
    In small patients with age, the umbilical hernia can grow itself without harm to health.

    Treatment of intervertebral hernia


    Treatment measures to remove the symptoms of this form of the disease are usually conservative, resort to surgery only in extreme cases.

    Treatment is aimed at the removal of painful symptoms of the intervertebral hernia. Assign non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are often combined with the local administration of corticosteroids. If the patient experiences severe pain, the application of an anesthetic solution can be shown, which is injected into the tissues located next to the hernia.

    If the disease has passed into the stage of remission, it is possible to improve the patient's condition by massage, exercise, designed specifically for such cases.

    Indications for surgical intervention are neuralgic disorders and pain syndrome, which are not amenable to drug treatment and conservative methods. In this case, a laminectomy, microdiscectomy or endoscopic removal is prescribed.


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