Modern view on the treatment of smooth skin dermatomycosis
Currently, the incidence of fungal diseases of the skin is very high. Almost every fifth on the planet has this or that lesion of the skin or its appendages. With age, these figures increase and after reaching 60-70 years, 80% of people are diagnosed with fungal diseases.
This is primarily due to concomitant internal diseases, endocrine pathology, which greatly weakens the immune system and negatively affects the circulation. Dermatomycosis of smooth skin in this pathology ranks third, giving way to onychomycosis( damage to the nail plate) and mycosis of the feet.
Types of dermatomycosis
Dermatomycosis( superficial lesion of smooth skin) can be a separate disease, but quite often it accompanies other skin diseases, for example, pyoderma, herpes, scabies, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, acne, eczema.
The source of infection of superficial mycosis is the fungi that feed on keratin of the skin. There are several of them that are dangerous to humans:
These fungi are divided into several species, depending on their favorite habitat. So, they can live on animals, man or be in the soil, while the transmission of the pathogen occurs both from the animal, and through the soil or from person to person. Dermatophytes are very contagious, but for humans, the greatest danger is represented by anthropophilic fungi, i.e.transmitted from the patient to the healthy. Fungi, affecting the skin, can cause diseases such as epidermophytia, trichophytosis, microsporia, rubromycosis, favus.
Despite its contagiousness, fungal diseases do not develop in all people. A great role is played by contact of the mycetes with damaged skin areas, if there is no microtrauma, a person can not get sick, but at the same time be an infection carrier. Also important role in the development of symptoms of smooth skin dermatomycosis has a dose of fungi that has fallen on the skin surface and the degree of activity of the protective function of the body. Thus, the presence of sufficient serum factors in the blood to suppress fungal flora, active leukocytes, can prevent the development of the disease.
The main manifestations of dermatomycosis
According to the conventional classification, all fungal diseases are divided into:
- Mycosis stop;
- Face dermatomymosis;
- Dermatomycosis of the trunk;
- Hand dermatomycosis;
- Inguinal mycosis;
- Mycosis of the scalp;
The torso of the trunk, above all, is spotted. They can be from brown to milky, with well-defined contours and a raised roller on the periphery. The center of the spots is often flattened and flaky. Favorite location - chest, back, neck and shoulders. The foci are prone to enlargement and fusion due to growth in sides, while the growth of the focus is similar to an expanding ring.
For inguinal dermatomycosis, the location of spots in the perineum, lower third of the abdomen, inner thighs, buttocks is typical. The foci have well-defined contours, an inflammatory cushion along the edge, and peeling. Color of spots from pale pink to brown. They tend to unite with the formation of a characteristic scalloped figure.
Mycosis of the scalp often occurs in children. The most characteristic manifestation is rounded, flaky spots with clear edges and without obvious signs of inflammation. At the spot formation spots are actively dropping hair, they become dull, brittle. When they break off, they leave their hemp in the form of black dots.
Onychomycosis is characterized by damage to the nail plate. It loses its transparency and acquires a milky-yellow hue, the nails become thick, brittle, brittle and prone to crumbling.
Hand dermatomycosis most often affects the palms. They form painful and itchy cracks, often the process is localized in the grooves of the skin. A fairly typical manifestation of mycosis of this area is peeling, which looks like flour. In some cases, the palms form bubbles, which burst after a short time and form painful sores. Often the vesicles combine to form one large blister.
Face dermatomycosis most often affects the skin of the chin, neck, lower lip. Usually, large hummocky knots of a bluish hue with cloudy contents are formed. Bubble formations often merge, and the skin acquires a rough structure. If the vesicle is formed on the site of hair growth, then it painlessly and easily stretches from the follicle.
The most commonly used method of pathogen detection is direct microscopy. It allows you to do a quick preliminary analysis of the material and diagnose the disease. The material can be scrapings of the skin, pieces of hair, nails. It can detect the mycelium of the pathogen, which is usually enough to determine the fungus and begin treatment.
In addition, for express diagnostics, a special Wood fluorescent lamp is used, which allows to reveal the skin affected by fungi. Usually in the light of a lamp they glow with a greenish color.
To clarify the diagnosis, the material is sometimes sown to Saburo's nutrient media, but this method does not always give a positive result.
Treatment of smooth skin dermatomycosis
The main treatment for smooth skin dermatomycosis is the treatment of foci with antimycotics. They can be systemic, i.e.intended for internal use or local. Combination methods of treatment are frequently used when antimycotics are administered orally and in parallel skin treatment with antifungal ointments or solutions is performed. Also, symptomatic therapy and treatment of the underlying disease( diseases of the digestive tract and neuroendocrine system, vascular disorders), which contributed to the development of mycosis, is necessary.
If mycosis was detected in the early stages, then therapy can be limited only by external means. When using medicines, you need to keep in mind that they are all divided into two large groups - fungicidal and fungistatic drugs. Fungicidal agents cause death of the mycelium, and fungistatics prevent further reproduction of new fungi.
For the removal of inflammation, swelling and itching, various lotions and medicinal dressings with astringent and antiseptic substances are prescribed:
- Boric acid;
- Boron-naphthalan paste;
Usually, these drugs are used for a week, and then go on to therapy directly with antifungal drugs.
It is most preferable to treat skin mycoses with multicomponent products that combine antifungal and antiseptic ingredients:
- Lorinden S;
It is very important to periodically change antimycotic drugs, this is a necessary measure to avoid the addiction of dermatomycetes to the drug components.
Which drug to choose and the duration of its use can be solved only by a dermatologist who sees the current situation in the patient and knows about all the accompanying diseases.