Every day we see on the TV screens rinsers and toothpastes, protecting our teeth from caries. What is this ailment, which is being talked about more and more?
Caries, translating into our language from Latin - it's "rotting".In principle, such rotting is the process by which tooth decay occurs.
Caries destruction begins with the demineralization of the tooth, then the destruction of its hard tissues takes place with the formation of a cavity. At first glance, it may seem that making a hole in the tooth is very difficult. Really teeth are solid, but acids with bacteria are the main enemies of our healthy teeth.
Causes of tooth decay
Why does caries develop and what is it? Caries slow, it is a complex pathological process. If it appeared for the first time, it is most likely to appear white on the tooth. Chronic caries - black spots and plaque on the teeth.
Caries is spread all over the world, it is the most actual disease today. It is interesting that the disease is a disease of the rich, the more refined and sweet food is used for food, less hard fruits and vegetables, the faster the caries develop. In the circumpolar regions, it is more common than in hot African countries.
Our teeth are based on dentin, reminiscent of its composition of ordinary bone. The upper part of the dentinal tooth is covered with enamel. Enamel is a yellow and white substance that does not have nerve endings and cells. Solid and strong our teeth because of the presence of calcium salts in them. Carbonates and phosphates are mainly part of the enamel. A similar coating of the tooth approaches the strength of iron. However, the processes occurring during chewing food provoke caries, causing damage to our enamel and dentin in the future.
The first attempts to discover the cause of tooth decay were surprising: Avicenna suggested that a special worm lives in the teeth, gnawing holes in them. But we know that soften the dental tissue of the acid, reacting with dental salts.
Scientists have been proven the main causes of caries. The bottom line is that when chewing bread, sweets, on the teeth remain pieces of food and there is a plaque. Time passes, and a bacterium like Streptococcus mutans, which was previously considered harmless, begins to feed on these carbohydrates. In the course of metabolism, these bacteria secrete lactic acid, harmful to the teeth. Improper maintenance of teeth provokes an excessive amount of lactic acid, which later reacts with the mineral salts of our enamel.
The so-called caries susceptibility of the tooth surface depends on genetic factors, nutrition, anatomical properties of the tooth and hygiene.
Symptoms of caries
What causes caries? When taking carbohydrate-containing food, with improper hygiene of the oral cavity, decreased immunity and the presence of carious microflora.
Caries, and his first symptoms can be noticed with the naked eye. All begins with such clinical signs:
1) Change of shade of a normal color of a tooth. If there are spots, then the process of decalcification of enamel has begun. In this case, the therapy of the disease is not complicated. The protective layer of enamel can be regenerated thanks to fluorinated pastes. However, if the dentin is exposed and black veins appear, one fluoridation in this case will not help.
2) The appearance of cavitation or a dark, light cavity on the tooth, which is sometimes accompanied by aching pain.
3) Unnecessary sensitivity to cold and hot drinks and food. This problem does not manifest itself at the first stages, however, when sensitivity arises, it serves as a signal that the focus of caries has become sufficient to get liquids through the tubes of dentin.
4) Soreness in the teeth during meals.
5) Appearance of unpleasant odor from the mouth.
6) Severe toothache that occurs due to deep tooth damage.
With severe pain, many patients begin to pay attention to the disease. And most likely there was inflammation of the pulp, that is, pulpitis. And at this stage of the disease, it is very difficult to treat it. Often a sick tooth should be simply removed.
Dentists have identified several phases of caries development, for each stage, its symptoms and signs are characteristic.
1) Initially, the first stage of caries appears on the tooth enamel stain, a dark shade. The patient may not yet have such a tooth, but tooth decay has already begun. Determine whether tooth decay or not, the dentist will be able to.
2) In the second stage of the disease, surface caries occur. Enamel is damaged, microorganisms begin to penetrate into the dentinal part of the teeth. The owner of a sick tooth can feel discomfort during the intake of hot or cold food. After this happens the third stage.
3) With medium and deep caries, bacteria began to destroy the dentin, because of this the carious space becomes small and then rather deep. The patient becomes harder to chew, there is a smell from the mouth. If the patient does not turn in time to the doctor, caries can get to the nerve of the tooth and you will have the first symptoms of pulpitis.
In order not to start the disease, without fail, if the first signs of the disease occur, consult a doctor!
Treatment of caries
When examined by a dentist, the doctor listens to the symptoms of the patient, and compares them with the picture of the disease. Inspection is carried out using a special probe and dental mirror. X-ray will show how damaged the tooth, and what should be the further tactics of caries treatment.
If tooth decay was found in the first stage of its development, and the enamel is damaged only slightly, the doctor will recommend a special procedure called "remineralization".During its holding on the teeth impose special applications with gel or mousse. They must saturate the enamel with calcium and fluoride ions. During the treatment sessions, enamel begins to strengthen, in the future it will allow to minimize the development of the disease.
When the carious lesion of the tooth continues to develop, there is a superficial and then middle and deep caries. In this case, a professional dentist should conduct serious therapy.
Having discovered deep lesions of the tooth tissue, the doctor begins to treat the damaged tissues, then conducts the filling. The main goal of the doctor is to remove the destroyed tooth tissue, disinfect the cavity in the tooth, as well as create normal conditions for the fact that the seal in the future was good.
The aesthetic effect of restoration is also an important issue during the treatment of caries. After the filling is corrected by the patient's bite, the top is polished from the top. The success of caries treatment will largely depend on the literacy of the doctor, and on how correctly he picked up the composition of the seal.
Cements, plastics, metals, compomers - the choice is yours and your dentist! At the end, a fluoride-containing drug is applied to the tooth enamel. After the procedure is done, the patient is not allowed to eat for 2 hours. If there is a strong tooth decay, most likely, doctors will recommend an aesthetic restoration of the tooth.
Do not be afraid of a dentist! Today, the days when anesthesia was used only during the extraction of the tooth have already ended. Local injection anesthesia helps to anesthetize the place where the drilling will take place and make further tooth filling painless.
Treatment of caries with folk remedies
Discovered the first signs of tooth decay? Try popular methods of struggle. And so, at home, adhere to the following recommendations:
1) First, keep an eye on hygiene: in the morning and in the evening, brush your teeth with a special fluoride paste. It plays an important role in reducing tooth decay and formation of reverse caries development in the first stages.
2) In addition, at the initial stage of the disease will help a special diet with solid whole grain bread, fresh vegetables with the exception of white bread, sweet and refined food. This diet does not provoke fermentation and reduces the likelihood of soft plaque.
3) It is recommended to eat sesame seeds, rich in calcium. Sweets should be eaten at the end of the meal, and not in the form of a separate meal.
4) Preventive measures and treatment of caries at the stage of spot formation is a fresh onion. It is necessary to chew this vegetable in raw form for five minutes. This helps kill cariogenic microorganisms.
5) In addition, among food products, give preference to apples. Fresh apples prevent caries due to the antiseptic effect on microorganisms, which are constant in our oral cavity. Lemon with lime will become an additional protection against the disease at home, they perfectly strengthen teeth and gums due to the increased content of vitamin C.
Note that preventive measures are most relevant in the initial stages of the disease, when the demineralization process has just started.
At later stages of the disease, home-based caries treatment is not enough to recover. Then the dentist comes to the rescue.
In modern society, the process of the appearance of caries is quite understandable. More than 98% of people suffer from the disease due to the presence in the diet of a large number of sweet and soft foods, carbonated drinks, sugar.
To prevent tooth decay, follow the simple rules:
1) Food should be correct, vitaminized, include a sufficient amount of solid foods: carrots, apples, etc. If there is a lack of calcium, vitamins and other substances, caries also develops, so watch out fortheir own food. Teeth should be cleaned at least 2 times a day, after eating they should be rinsed.
2) Correctly choose a toothbrush, if you have a tendency to permanent accumulation of tartar, give preference to a brush with a solid bristle. Important and constant preventive examinations are with a doctor: it is better to fight tooth decay in the first stages.
3) If you were given a seal, then follow the diet, except for such potentially dangerous products as grilling, hard toffee, nuts, etc. Even if the filling was done in the best way, it is not a fact that in time you will need a refinishing.
4) After treatment, use chlorhexidine solution 0.1% daily for everyday rinsing of the oral cavity. Watch your teeth, clean the mouth, eat healthy foods, and then the caries will stop constantly accompanying your life!
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