Sleepy artery on the neck and its possible diseases
A sleepy artery is a paired artery that originates in the thoracic cavity, the left originates in the arch of the aorta, and the right artery in the humerus trunk.
Thus, the left carotid artery is longer than the right one by a few centimeters. The common carotid artery emerges into the neck through the upper aperture of the thorax, rising almost vertically. The sleepy artery on the neck supplies blood to the greater part of the head, the brain and the organ of vision.
It is worth noting that the common carotid artery does not give branches in its turn, but at the upper end of the cartilage of the thyroid gland is divided into:
- Internal carotid artery;
- External carotid artery.
The normal blood flow to the brain is about 55 ml per 100 g of tissue, and as to the oxygen demand, the norm is 3.7 ml / 1 min / 100 g.
This volume of blood supply can provide normal arteries with an undisturbed lumen of blood vessels. If the carotid artery on the neck has a narrowed lumen, then inevitably a violation of blood supply to the brain, as well as violation of various metabolic processes, the development of ischemia. Narrowing the lumen of the arteries can be a consequence of atherosclerosis, fibro-muscular dysplasia, nonspecific aorto-arteritis, syphilis, tuberculosis, and also collagenosis.
A chronic vascular disease called atherosclerosis is the culprit behind the development of a similar pathology in ninety percent of cases.
Often, atherosclerosis can grow into a serious disease, like an aneurysm of the carotid artery. In most cases, the localization of aneurysms is the medullary part of the carotid artery( internal).As a rule, an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery has a multiple character. The size of an aneurysm is not more than one centimeter, very rare aneurysms, whose diameter exceeds two to three centimeters. The disease manifests itself as headaches and epileptic seizures, in rare cases local ischemia of the brain can develop. To detect aneurysms, radiopaque angiography, magnetic resonance imaging-angiography, and X-ray CT are used. If an aneurysm is present, surgical treatment is necessary.
In seventy-five percent of cases, there are "nonclassical" types of the structure of the Willis circle( arterial circle of the large brain).Scientists argue that such types of structure negatively affect the functioning of the arterial circle, the regulation of blood flow in the brain, in addition, they can be the main cause of aneurysm. The most dangerous case is trifurcation of the internal carotid artery, which has a strong influence on the correct distribution of blood in the brain. There are several types of trifurcation:
- Front. With the front trifurcation, 50% of the blood comes from the internal carotid artery to the brain, and 30% from the opposite one;
- Rear. On the side of the posterior trifurcation, the internal carotid artery is able to deliver the brain to the order of fifty percent of the blood, the opposite artery - 40%, and the basilar - only 10%.
The results of numerous studies prove that the nonclassical structure of the Willis circle in 64% of cases is manifested precisely in the owners of the mesozar type of the skull.
One of the most mysterious and poorly studied arterial diseases is the pathological tortuosity of the carotid arteries. Today, more than 25% of the adult population displays a variety of crimp and lengthening of the carotid arteries around the neck. The cause of tortuosity, as a rule, is congenital, but there are cases when lengthening of the arteries can develop due to hypertensive disease.
Which species has a pathological tortuosity of the carotid arteries?
- Artery lengthening implies the presence of soft bends along the vessel, rarely causes anxiety, is found with a completely random study. With age, smooth bends can turn bends, as the elasticity of arterial walls changes. As a result, blood circulation in the brain is inevitable.
- Kinking( the artery bends at an acute angle).This species can be congenital, developing from an elongated carotid artery. Bends can be formed due to arterial hypertension, progressive atherosclerosis. In this case, surgical correction of tortuosity is necessary.
- Coiling( an arterial loop is formed).Coiling implies significant changes in blood flow to the arteries. The manifestation of symptoms of circulatory insufficiency in the brain indicates a violation of blood flow compensation, and also dictates the acute need for detailed examination and further treatment.
One of the most common causes of carotid artery disease is the narrowing of the carotid artery. The risk of contraction increases with age. As the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the internal walls of the carotid artery, its lumen narrows, and the blood supply deteriorates. Plaques form in the carotid artery from fibrous tissue, calcium and cholesterol. Atherosclerotic plaques have the property of accumulating platelets and clogging the carotid arteries.
To prevent the development of diseases of the carotid arteries can be through such activities:
- Cholesterol-free diet;
- Refusal of smoking;
- Body weight control;
- Regular exercise.