How to replace and build a new wiring in the apartment
Mar 23, 2018
As a rule, every 3-5 years we repair rooms in our apartment. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the repair is of a cosmetic nature and includes: replacement of the ceiling, wall and floor covering, as well as the replacement of skirting boards, cornices, lighting and sockets. If you decide to make repairs in the entire apartment or move to a new one, we recommend that you replace the wiring. We will try to explain in detail how to lay the wiring correctly in this article.
Contents of the article:
- What is the purpose of changing the
- wiring? How to change the wiring in the
apartment? How to change the wiring in the
apartment. Why is it necessary to change the
wiring? Some people are interested in the question of why it is necessary to changeWiring, if the old one is working fine. In order to answer this question, it is sufficient to give a similar example to water pipes. Metal pipes are often replaced by plastic pipes, because they are much more reliable and durable, and besides, they are not clogged with a grin that occurs in metal pipes, and therefore the throughput of plastic pipes and the pressure in them will always be good. The same, by and large, concerns electrical wiring.
First, the wiring itself in the houses that were built in the last century is not designed for how we operate it now. When designing houses and apartments, electrical engineers did not know that in each apartment in a few years, besides a refrigerator, a TV, a washing machine and light bulbs, there would be: a computer, air conditioning, a powerful electric kettle, an iron and other electrical equipment. It turns out that the throughput of the old wiring is lower, the power consumption of all our electrical appliances.
Secondly, in addition to the mismatch of the wiring capacity, in most old buildings it was aluminum, and aluminum is not the best material for this, having a large number of shortcomings. In addition, the life of the aluminum wiring is 30 years, but it should be replaced even without waiting for this period to ensure the supply of a stable voltage in the apartment and prolong the life of electrical appliances.
Choice of wiring and plan for installing outlets and switches
Before proceeding to the description of practical wiring installation instructions, a couple of words should be mentioned about the wiring itself.
Which new wiring is best to lay
Of course, the best cable for electrical wiring in the apartment is a copper multicore cable. The main advantage of a copper cable in front of an aluminum cable is its strength. Probably, each of you faced such a problem when the aluminum core of the cable, when connecting a switch or outlet, simply broke off, and this is a very unpleasant situation, with a copper multicore cable such a problem is not terrible. In addition, the copper cable has better bandwidth and a longer service life.
For connection of sockets it is recommended to use a stranded copper cable of 2.5 squares, and for lighting - 1.5 squares. We advise you to choose a cable with double insulation. If you have a ground in your house or you plan to do it yourself in the future, then buy a triple cable, with a special dwelling for grounding.
Installation plan for outlets and switches
First of all, before the installation work, you need to think over the plan and interior of the rooms after the repair, because on its basis, and wiring will be done to know where and what cable to lay, and most importantly - how. Therefore, having such a plan, you will know where to put switches and sockets.
For example, knowing the place where the computer will be installed, we will build a separate cable there to power all computer devices that have a high total power consumption. The same goes for other powerful techniques. In those places where the energy-intensive equipment will be located, it is better to lay a separate cable with a single outlet: an electric oven, an air-conditioner, a water heating tank, a refrigerator, a washing machine, etc. For the rest of the technology we carry out a "common" cable and sockets.
In the hall, it is recommended to install 5 outlets with one frame, for connecting a home theater( TV, DVD player, digital receiver and audio system), a double outlet near a soft corner, and a single outlet in the places where you need them.
As for the bedroom, it is better to make a double rosette near the bed, desk and TV.In other places - as needed.
In the corridor, it is sufficient to install one double outlet, and, if necessary, additional ones.
In the bathroom, the presence of outlets depends on which electrical appliances you use it. If there is no washing machine there, and your family members will not use electrical appliances, then you wash off the outlet in the bathroom - no.
If you have a technically functional kitchen, then in the place where the cutting table will be located, we recommend making from three to five outlets in one frame, depending on the number of simultaneously used appliances. As a rule, 5 outlets are the best option to connect: a hood, a microwave oven and an electric kettle, leaving two sockets free for connection: a food processor, a bread maker, a coffee maker and the like. Try to think over the number of outlets so that a stationary technique that does not fold into the box after use has its own power outlet, so that you do not have to plug a plug from one outlet to connect the other. Then calculate the necessary number of outlets, as well as how much power and how many devices will work simultaneously to know: to carry one cable or several.
Also, make outlets in other places, where necessary.
Mounting of sockets
According to the established standards, the installation of sockets is carried out at a distance of 30 cm from the floor, and the installation of switches - by 85 cm. One cable with a cross-section of 2.5 squares can connect up to five outlets for powering non-power-consuming devices,one. From the counter to the junction boxes it is recommended to use a cable with a section of 4 squares.
How to dismantle the old
wiring So, when you know where and what outlet you should have as planned, proceed to dismantling the old wiring. The procedure of dismantling entirely depends on how the old wiring was laid: laid in special channels inside the wall or walled in, but about all this in order.
Before carrying out all wiring and dismantling operations, it is necessary to disconnect all the apartment wiring coming from the meter, and from the meter, directly supply the extension cord for temporary power supply.
If the wiring has been laid in channels, its dismantling and installation of a new one is carried out simultaneously. That is, to one end of the old cable we reel up a new one, and pull out the second end of the old wiring - so you do not need to beat the walls to dismantle the old wiring and experience difficulties with laying a new one. But if the plan for the new wiring does not coincide with the plan for laying the existing one, then it will be necessary to pierce the strobes in the walls.
In the event that your apartment wiring was embedded in the wall, first you need to determine where it is laid, and only then to make it dismantle and lay a new one. Find the wiring in the wall and you can visually see the wall surface sealed strobes, or using a special device.
How to lay the wiring correctly
The installation of a new wiring is done as follows: on the wall we make a marking where the new wiring will take place. After that, with the help of a grinder and a perforator we make the shtroby - the best way for the walls of a panel house. We advise you to lay the wire in the corrugation, as this is additional safety, and the next time its replacement will not be so difficult, since the new cable can be pulled by pulling out the old one.
When the shrouds for the cable are done, we first conduct the cable from the meter to the junction boxes. We place the cable in the corrugation and place it in these stitches, fixing to the wall with alabaster, every 1-1.5 m. Further, from the distribution boxes we lay the cable( also in the corrugation) to the outlets, switches and lighting devices. The release of the cable for the outlet and for the switch must be at least 15 cm. The next stage of work is the connection of the cable branchings to the trunk cable in the junction boxes. We would like to draw your attention to the fact that the cable is connected with a special terminal, and not with twists. Such a connection will be better and safer. When all the work in the junction boxes is made - go to the apartment input power.
The final stage of the work is to connect the house wiring to the meter. If you have an old meter and old machines - they should be replaced. The ideal option is to invite electricians to conduct a new cable from the distribution panel of the entrance to you in the meter, and also to replace the meter itself. We recommend to install the meter in a special metal flap, where electric machines are also installed. With regard to automata, we recommend to install two-phase. How many amperes should be in the machine - determine based on what kind of equipment will work for you at the same time. The consumed power of these devices is added up and divided by 220, so we get the amperage of the machine. After all the work with laying a new cable into the apartment, replacing the meter( sealing) and installing the machine - completed, most recently connect the machine to the apartment layout and then turn on the machine. If the machine is not knocked out - then everything is connected correctly, we check all the sockets and switches for operability.
Materials that are needed to replace the wiring in the apartment:
- Sockets and switches( frames);
- Boxes for sockets;
- Junction boxes;
- Electric machine;
How much does it cost to change the wiring in the apartment
If you decided to replace the wiring using the services of special companies, then usually one point, according to average calculations, you will cost around 500 rubles. That is, to install 2 sockets and 2 switches - this will cost 2000 rubles, not counting the materials: box, cable, outlet or switch. To this, it is necessary to add also the cost of laying the cable from the shield to the junction box and the cost of materials. Thus, the replacement wiring in a one-room apartment will cost you 7000 rubles.
The cost of replacing the wiring with your own hands will be several times cheaper, because for this you only need to buy the necessary material, and also have: a grinder with a disc for concrete, a puncher with stabbing attachments, alabaster and an auxiliary tool.